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(2014) On the origins and spread of Olea europaea L. (olive) domestication: evidence for shape variation of olive stones at Ugarit, Late Bronze Age, Syria; a window on the Mediterranean Basin and on the westward diffusion of olive varieties.

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Charred archaeological stones of Olea europaea L. (olive) from Late Bronze Age Ugarit, Syria, were analyzed with geometric morphometry and compared with a morphological differentiation model established on the basis of analyses of modern spontaneous
           1 3 Vegetation History andArchaeobotany  The Journal of Quaternary PlantEcology, Palaeoclimate and AncientAgriculture - Official Organ of the International Work Group forPalaeoethnobotany ISSN 0939-6314Volume 23Number 5 Veget Hist Archaeobot (2014)23:567-575DOI 10.1007/s00334-013-0412-4 On the srcins and spread of Olea europaea L. (olive) domestication: evidence for shape variation of olive stones at Ugarit,Late Bronze Age, Syria—a window on the Mediterranean Basin and on the westward diffusion of olive varieties Claire Newton, Christine Lorre, CarolineSauvage, Sarah Ivorra & Jean-FrédéricTerral           1 3 Your article is protected by copyright andall rights are held exclusively by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. This e-offprint isfor personal use only and shall not be self-archived in electronic repositories. If you wishto self-archive your article, please use theaccepted manuscript version for posting onyour own website. You may further depositthe accepted manuscript version in anyrepository, provided it is only made publiclyavailable 12 months after official publicationor later and provided acknowledgement isgiven to the srcinal source of publicationand a link is inserted to the published articleon Springer's website. The link must beaccompanied by the following text: "The finalpublication is available at link.springer.com”.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the srcins and spread of   Olea europaea  L. (olive)domestication: evidence for shape variation of olive stones atUgarit, Late Bronze Age, Syria—a window on the MediterraneanBasin and on the westward diffusion of olive varieties Claire Newton  • Christine Lorre  • Caroline Sauvage  • Sarah Ivorra  • Jean-Fre´de´ric Terral Received: 15 April 2013/Accepted: 11 August 2013/Published online: 27 August 2013   Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Abstract  Charred archaeological stones of   Olea euro- paea  L. (olive) from Late Bronze Age Ugarit, Syria, wereanalyzed with geometric morphometry and compared witha morphological differentiation model established on thebasis of analyses of modern spontaneous (uncultivated)olive populations and cultivated varieties of various srcinswithin the Mediterranean Basin. The results allow a rein-terpretation of the east–west morphological diversity pre-viously observed in wild olives. The archaeobotanical datawere compared in detail to the partly geographicallystructured modern morphological diversity of the culti-vated olive. Ancient morphotypes could be distinguished,among which one is dominant in the assemblage. Theirdiffusion from east to west is shown, and their time of arrival in the northwestern Mediterranean can be evaluatedby comparison to archaeological material from that area.Combining morphometric and genetic data, modern refer-ence and archaeological material also guides us in under-standing the mechanisms that prevailed in the long-termagrobiodiversity of the olive. Keywords  Agricultural biological diversity   Archaeological olive stones    Diffusion    Geometricmorphometry    Olea europaea Introduction Olive trees became a symbol of the Mediterranean world asa result of a long-term process which began several millionyears ago with the establishment of the MediterraneanBasin and climate (Suc 1984; Mai 1989; Krijgsman et al. 1999; Que´zel and Me´dail 2003) and finalized by the useand manipulation of the olive by human societies(Kaniewski et al. 2012). Indeed in the Mediterranean Basin, Communicated by G. Willcox. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of thisarticle (doi:10.1007/s00334-013-0412-4) contains supplementarymaterial, which is available to authorized users.C. Newton ( & )    S. Ivorra    J.-F. TerralCentre de Bio-Arche´ologie et d’Ecologie, Institut de Botanique,UMR 5059 CNRS/Universite´ Montpellier 2/EPHE/INRAP,163, rue Auguste Broussonet, 34090 Montpellier, Francee-mail: clairennewton@gmail.comJ.-F. Terrale-mail: terral@univ-montp2.frC. NewtonLaboratoire d’Arche´ologie et de Patrimoine, Universite´ duQue´bec a` Rimouski, 300, alle´e des Ursulines, Rimouski,QC G5L 3A1, CanadaC. LorreMuse´e d’Arche´ologie Nationale, Chaˆteau - Place Charlesde Gaulle, 78105 Saint-Germain-en-Laye, FranceC. SauvagePitzer College, 1050 North Mills Avenue, Claremont,CA 91711-6101, USAC. SauvageArche´orient, UMR 5133 - CNRS/Universite´ Lumie`re Lyon 2,Maison de l’Orient et de la Me´diterrane´e - Jean Pouilloux,7 rue Raulin, 69365 Lyon Cedex 7, FranceJ.-F. TerralUniversite´ Montpellier 2, Place Euge`ne Bataillon,34095 Montpellier Cedex, France  1 3 Veget Hist Archaeobot (2014) 23:567–575DOI 10.1007/s00334-013-0412-4  olive tree distribution is used to delimit the Mediterraneanclimate zone. This correlation seems relevant only for  Oleaeuropaea  ssp.  europaea  var.  sativa  Lehr (cultivated olive),but not for  Olea europaea  ssp.  europaea  var.  sylvestris  (Mill.)Lehr (wild olive, also referred to as oleaster or  Olea oleaster  Hoffmans. & Link) (Ozenda 1975; Rivas-Martı´nez 1987).Therefore, as Daget (1984) suggested, olive trees, Medi-terranean climate and ecosystems may only be strictly relatedinasmuch as societal, cultural and economic factors thatemerged eight to nine millennia ago in the Levant are takeninto account (Zohary et al. 2012).Olive history, particularly the srcins of its cultivationand domestication in the western Mediterranean, hasalways been a sensitive and controversial matter. Theclassic view is that a change from wild to cultivated olivepopulations took place in the southern Levant during theChalcolithic in the 4th millennium  B . C . E . (Zohary andSpiegel-Roy 1975; Neef  1990; Liphschitz et al. 1991; Kislev 1995). In areas where olive trees were not native,such as Egypt, finds of remains such as wood charcoal orolive stones indirectly provide a  terminus ante quem  for theearliest cultivation practices. Locally, the development andexpansion of olive cultivation, technological developmentsin agriculture, oil production and trade in conjunction withenvironmental changes have been regarded as factorsexplaining the transition from the Chalcolithic to the EarlyBronze Age, leading to the rise of city-states (Lovell 2002).From this first Near Eastern centre there ensued a slowdiffusion of domesticated olive forms, of technicalknowledge and cultivation practices, first to the Aegean inthe 3rd millennium, then to the central and westernMediterranean where domesticated olives have beenfound in Italy and Spain in the Late Bronze Age, around1200–1000  B . C . E ., and finally to southern France during the1st millennium  B . C . E . (van Zeist 1980).Eco-anatomical and morphometrical approaches devel-oped on wood/charcoal (Terral and Arnold-Simard 1996;Terral 1997) and olive stones respectively (Terral et al.2004), reconsidered that strict diffusionist model by dem-onstrating that olive trees had probably been used andcultivated in the northwestern Mediterranean since the endof the Neolithic–Chalcolithic transition (Terral and Arnold-Simard 1996; Terral 2000). Nevertheless, these results do not in any way challenge the significant influence of Phoenicians, Etruscans, Greeks and Romans on the spreadof the olive across the whole Mediterranean Basin. Itappears then, that the origins of olive cultivation anddomestication in the northwestern Mediterranean are moreancient than previously thought. They seem to emerge twomillennia before the introduction of new varieties, know-how and techniques from various other Mediterraneanlands (Terral et al. 2004). These results agree with modelsprovided by molecular biology, which show that olivedomestication took place independently in several regions,and not exclusively in the Near Eastern centre, from whichderived the most prevalent agrolineages (Besnard et al.2002; Khadari 2005; Breton et al. 2006, 2009; Kaniewski et al. 2012). Nevertheless, the contribution of the occi-dental genetic pool in the constitution of olive varietalheritage seems to have been minor, compared to theoriental one (Besnard et al. 2013).The area of Ugarit, the ancient city of the presentarchaeological site of Ras Shamra, Syria, former capital of thekingdomofUgaritandeconomiccentreatthecrossroadsof Hittite, Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Mediterraneanspheres of influence (Fig. 1), yielded archaeological olivestones which will be studied to characterize locally culti-vated varieties. Olive oil and fruit contributed to the com-mercial wealth of the city during the Late Bronze Age, andtheolivegroveswerelocatedinthesurroundingcountryside,some of which at least were owned by the royal palace andleased to farmers (Callot 1987). Local oil consumption andproduction were certainly important, as shown by thenumerous oil presses excavated in the city of Ugarit (Callot1993, 1994). Texts found in the city also mention numerous exportsofoil, probablyoliveoil. For instance, text RS18.42mentions 160 jars of oil released to a Cypriot and 144 jars of oil to an Egyptian (Virolleaud 1965). Oil export lies at theheart of this work, since the city was in a privileged positiontoengageinLateBronzeAgemaritimetradeoffinelycraftedproducts such as ivory, metals or textiles, ores and agricul-tural produce, among which wine and oil were certainlyprominent (Sauvage 2012).By comparison to cultivated forms from northwesternMediterranean sites of different periods (Terral et al. 2004),the analysis of olive stones from Ugarit may help to betterunderstand the timing of the diffusion of varieties whichhad been domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean andsubsequently introduced westwards. This diffusion mayhave played an important role in the development anddiversification of olive agrobiodiversity in the westernMediterranean. Materials and methods The first step of this study consists in the analysis of themorphological structure of stones from extant populations.Our reference collection comprises 498 stones collectedfrom trees of 15 spontaneous (uncultivated) populationswith 30 stones per population, except Slunfeh (Syria) forwhich we hold only 28 stones, and 1,517 stones belongingto 51 cultivated varieties of various srcins with 30 stonesper variety, except the one from the Menara garden, Mar-rakech, Morocco, for which only 17 were studied (Fig. 1a).The geographical srcin of the varieties is based on current 568 Veget Hist Archaeobot (2014) 23:567–575  1 3  knowledge about where they are grown, not taking intoconsideration recent introductions. For further interpreta-tion, the east–west dividing line in the MediterraneanBasin, which has been used here runs through the AdriaticSea and the Libyan Desert; this is also a biogeographicaldivision proposed by Blondel and Aronson (1995). Thecollection, at several stages of its development, has alreadybeen used in previous studies (Terral et al. 2004, 2005; Newton et al. 2006; Terral 2007). For this study, additional wild populations and cultivated varieties collected in 2007in Turkey and Syria have been included.In the second stage, we analysed the morphologicalstructure of 199 charred, seemingly perfectly preservedLate Bronze Age archaeological stones. Previous studieshave shown that charring does not alter the shape of olivestones significantly, provided that the two valves consti-tuting the stone are joined together (Terral et al. 2004).This batch, n  76881, now preserved at the Muse´ed’Arche´ologie Nationale in Saint-Germain-en-Laye,France, entered the museum in 1931 (Lorre 2004). It wasfound in Minet el-Beida, ancient Mahadou, the harbour siteof the city of Ugarit (Fig. 1b) by C.F.A. Schaeffer. Fig. 1 a , Geographical srcinof the spontaneous populationsand cultivars of olive studied(the anonymous cultivar fromthe Menara garden of Marrakech, Morocco is named‘‘Menara’’ in Fig. 3);  b ,Location of Ugarit andMahadou, Syria, withneighbouring cultural influencesbetween 1500 and 1300  B . C . E Veget Hist Archaeobot (2014) 23:567–575 569  1 3
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