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   Journal     for    Interdisciplinary    Research   on   Religion   and    Science,   No.   1,    July     2007    Multy ‐ ,   Inter   –   and   Trans   –   disciplinarity:   a   triadic   discourse   George   CEAU Ş U *   *    Al.   I.   Cuza     University,   Faculty    of    Philosophy,   Blvd.   Carol,   No.   11,   Iasi   700506,   Romania,   E  ‐ mail     Address:   ceausu@uaic.ro    Abstract    At    the   level   of    multi ‐ disciplinarity   we   must    conceive   a   common   horizon   for   various   scientific   disciplines   (and   not    only   scientific).   The   inter ‐ disciplinarity   is   represented   by   the   transfer   of    method   between   at    lest    two   disciplines   and   the   trans ‐ disciplinarity   is   represented   by   the   transfer   of    concepts   and   principles.   The   trans ‐ disciplinarity   may   be   conceived   as   an   advanced   inter ‐ disciplinarity.   We   examine   the   content    of    terms   scientific ‐ technic   revolution   and   knowledg   revolution ,   then   we   enumerate   a   few   arguments   for   which   the   mono ‐ disciplinrity   is   becomed   inacceptable   for   the   evolutuin   on   topical   market    of    labour   and   for   an   ethical   attitude.   In   the   second   size   of    the   paper   we   examine   the   project    of    trans ‐ disciplinarity   proposed   by   Basarab   Nicolescu   and   we   compare   this   project    with   other   inter ‐ disciplinary   projects   in   the   domain   of    semiotic.   The   principles   of    logic   (first    of    all   the   excluded   middle)   are   bringged   into   discussion   in   the   purpose   of    distionguishing   of    the   strategies   of    inter ‐ isciplinarity.    Abrégé   En   ce   qui   concerne   la   pluridisciplinarité,   il   s'agit    d'un   horizon   commun   pour   plusierurs   disciplines   scientifiques   (et    non   seulement    scientifiques).   L'interdisciplinarité   consiste   dans   un   transfert    de   méthode   entre   au   moins   deux   disciplines   et    la   transdisciplinarité,   dans   un   transfert    de   concepts   et    de   principes.   La   transdisciplinarité   peut  ‐ être   conçue   aussi   comme   une   interdisciplinarité   avancée.   Nous   examinons   le   contenu   des   termes   révolution   scientifique ‐ téchnique   et    révolution   en   connaissance   (knowledge   revolution) ,   puis   nous   énumérons   quelques   arguments   pour   lesquelles   la   monodisciplinarité   est    devenue   inacceptable   sur   l'actuel   marché   du   travail   et    comme   attitude   déontologique.   L'augmentation   exponenntielle   des   connaissances   a   inspiré   des   termes   operationels   pour   les   doxuments   de   l'Union   Européene,   comme   la   société    de   la   connaissance   et    la   société    informationelle .   Dans   la   deuxième   partie   du   notre   étude   nous   examinons   le   projet    de   transdisciplinarité   proposé   par   Basarab   Nicolescu   et    nous   comparons   ce   projet    avec   autres   projets   interdisciplinaires   ayant    comme   point    de   départ    la   sémiologie.   Les   principes   de   logique   (le   tiers   exclu   dans   le   premier   fois)   sont    convoqués   pour   préciser   les   strategies   de   l'interdiscplinarité.   Mutidisciplinarity   and   Interdisciplinarity   Multidisciplinarity   is   one   of    the   first    steps   we   take   when   we   study   the   interdisciplinary   phenomenon,   the   necessary   preliminary.   Unless   we   were   convinced   of    the   important    existence   of    multidisciplinarity   nowadays   we   wouldn’t    need   to   theorize   over   interdisciplinarity   and   transdisciplinarity.   On   its   279    CEAU  Ş  U   ‐ Multy  ‐  ,   Inter    –   and    Trans   –   disciplinarity:   a   triadic   discourse   first    appearance   (which   will   soon   came   to   be   outdated)   transdisciplinarity   is   advanced   interdisciplinarity.   There   are   at    least    four   reasons   for   which   I   won’t    take   seriously   monodisciplinarity   in   my   study:   i)   the   technico   –   scientific   revolution   (RST)   which   began   to   be   theorized   in   1960’s   and   was   continued   by   the   “knowledge   revolution”   in   the   90’s;   ii)   the   increasing   number   of    population   in   our   days   so   that    the   number   of    the   existent    perspectives   reaches   milliards   (we   have   never   had   a   lager   society   than   this   one);   iii)   nowadays   life   expectancy   is   about    75   years   old;   iv)   multi   and   interculturality   which   should   be   accepted   as   long   as   we   are   citizens   of    the   European   Community   not    to   say   that    we   should   spread   them   and   accept    them   on   the   labour   market    since   they   have   the   status   of    two   basic   terms   in   today’s   political   European   construction.   That    is   why   words   such   as   SI   (informational   society)   and   SC   (knowledge   society)   are   the   words   with   which   UE   documents   operate   most    especially   from   the   beginning   of    the   21 st    century.   I   find   the   idea   of    the   “specialist    in   multidisciplinarity”   to   be   a   great    one,   although   paradoxical.   Several   things   that    I   may   add   in   order   to   support    my   choice   are:   RST   brings   about    an   exponential   growth   of    the   number   of    sciences   (time   function),   a   growth   that    the   Internet    and   the   present    data   basis   accelerate.   One   single   example   would   suffice:   Jean   Dieudonné   divides   algebraic   geometry‘s   history   in   seven   époques.   First    of    them   is   antiquity   (400   B.C.   and   1630   A.C.)   and   the   last    comprises   the   period   1950 ‐ 1980. 1   To   be   more   exact,   two   thousands   of    years   of    knowledge   are   described   in   two   pages   while   the   last    30   years   of    knowledge   are   described   in   about    thirty   pages.   The   seventh   period   of    knowledge   is   given   one   page/one   year   as   compared   to   the   first    period   –   one   page   per   kilo ‐ year.   In   other   words   the   antique   kilo ‐ year   is   the   correspondent    for   one   year   of    the   contemporary   knowledge.   However,   there   are   advanced   technologies   for   which   the   present    year   is,   in   neutral   terms,   a   1   Jean   Dieudone   History    of     Algebraic   Geometry  ,   Wardsowrth   Advanced   Books   and   Software,   Monterey,   1985,   p.   1 ‐ 3,   91 ‐ 113;   also   see   Igor   R.  Ş afarevici,   Bazele    geometriei   algebrice   [Algebraic   Geometry    Basis] ,  Ş tiin ț  ific ă ş i   Enciclopedic ă Publishing   House,   Bucharest,   1976,   pp.   556 ‐ 580   280     Journal     for    Interdisciplinary    Research   on   Religion   and    Science,   No.   1,    July     2007    mega ‐ year   or   even   a   giga ‐ year   of    Antiquity   (this   is   true   for   the   computer   science,   for   example).   Computers   (which   have   known   six   generations),   just    like   the   robots   (which   have   known   six   generations   too),   are   very   good   examples   of    artificial   intelligence.   They   are   informational–energetic   machines   that    were   developed   on   the   model   of    the   intelligent    human   behaviour.   Gordon   Moore’s   law   still   acts   on   the   electronic   techniques   that    are   based   on   integration   on   a   very   large   scale.   Every   eighteen   months   the   number   of    electronic   circuits   on   board   doubles   (but    we   can   expect    that    in   2010 ‐ 2015   silicium   chip   technology   reaches   its   limits).   These   three   years   in   which   the   advanced   technology   was   doubled   (if    we   look   at    the   qualitative,   quantitative   and   relational   parameters)   replaced   the   former   five   years   plan.   Nowadays   technological   prognosis   doubles   every   two,   three   or   four   years   as   compared   to   the   former   forecasts   that    spoke   about    periods   of    five   years   and   even   more.   At    present,   multidisciplinarity   is   a   very   good   exercise,   which   is   individually   applied   to   a   European   society   where   education   gradually   shifts   from   elite   culture   to   mass   culture.   Every   specialist    must    check   off    40   or   50   areas   how   many   appear   in   the   grade   report    annexed   to   the   licence   diploma.   Since   it    is   oriented   towards   competency   and   performance   the   labour   market    pressures   people   into   a   narrowing   of    specializations.   But    how   many   of    the   specialists   really   master   their   area?   Over   8000   disciplines   are   taught    in   Northern   American   or   Australian   Universities.   It    is   only   natural   that    Bologna   process   criticizes   the   improper   multiplication   of    specialisations   („improper”   in   the   sense   that    it    has   no   connection   to   the   labour   market).   A   specialization   such   as   „the   elementary   particles   physics”   is   more   than   enough   for   one   life   (Basarab   Nicolescu   admits).   This   is   also   an   anthropological   characteristic:   under   specialization   pressure,   culture’s   theories   and   especially   science   and   philosophy   meet    very   seldom   within   the   same   human   conscience.   Interdisciplinarity   also   represents   the   transfer   of    a   method   from   one   sphere   to   another   even   when   the   methodological   prescriptions   of    the   former   science   enter   a   conflict    with   the   latter’s   methodological   prescriptions.   281    CEAU  Ş  U   ‐ Multy  ‐  ,   Inter    –   and    Trans   –   disciplinarity:   a   triadic   discourse   Biochemistry   is   a   (almost)   natural   product    of    science   but    it    takes   a   greater   effort    for   biophysics   to   solve   the   methodological   conflict.   „The   ecart”   between   sciences   can   vary   according   to   each   component’s   structure   and   the   common   scientific   language   (when   it    exists).   Yet,   we   can’t    create   interdisciplinary   compounds   like   „metaphysics   physics”   as   easy   as   we   develop   areas   such   as   astrophysics   or   „molecular   biosematics”.   This   combination   of    sciences   has   its   limits   too.   We   already   have   two   very   important    sciences   (physics   and   metaphysics)   and   there   is   no   need   to   multiply   specializations   because   this   is   interdisciplinary   practice’s   field.   In   elementary   school,   the   teacher   makes   a   list    with   all   concepts   no   matter   if    they   belong   to   grammar   or   mathematics,   he   pursues   their   evolution,   and   contextualizations   untill   the   end   of    the   school   year.   Just    in   the   same   way,   the   responsible   researcher   must    resist    words   invasion   and   analyze   the   concepts’   significance   only   within   the   limits   of    his   knowledge.   One   more   problem   could   be   the   difference   between   the   child’s   flexible   and   open   mind   and   the   grown   ups’   mind   which   is   full   of    prejudices   and   therefore   specialized   in   manipulation   and   perversion.   Transdisciplinarity   is   an   experiential   method   and   not    an   experimental   one.   Things   become   more   and   more   difficult    when   the   connoisseur  ‐ the   observer  ‐ (a   generic   construction   of    the   scientific   world)   studies   different    religions.   Real   sciences   try   to   give   us   a   general   picture   of    the   world   but    they   use   a   far   –   reaching   concept    of    reality   and   a   multitude   of    sermocinal   sciences   don’t    have   access   to   it.   If    this   is   the   case   of    real   sciences   think   about    religions   that    adopt    ancient    cosmologies   or   scientifical   perceptions,   which   were   founded   centuries   ago.   Some   of    them   are   already   abandoned   by   nowadays   scientifical   world.   In   post  ‐ modern   philosophy   nobody   is   disturbed   by   the   fact    that    Jacque   Derrida   uses   a   hundred   year   old   semiotic   model.   Not    even   religion   is   against    it.   In   fact,   religion   still   uses   sets   of    verbal   and   pragmatic   languages   that    were   created   thousands   of    years   ago.   And   Plato   and   Aristotle’s   models   of    thinking   and   psychic   are   just    as   old.   Yet,   it    is   not    indicated   to   use   an   outdated   language   in   science   and   on   the   labour   market    people   don’t    feel   comfortable   if    we   use   past   ‐ oriented   282  
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