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Landscape Research Changes in the location and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment—case study (SE Poland

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Landscape Research Changes in the location and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment—case study (SE Poland
  Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Download by:  [Uniwersytet Marii Curie] Date:  20 May 2017, At: 11:30 Landscape Research ISSN: 0142-6397 (Print) 1469-9710 (Online) Journal homepage: Changes in the location and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna Rivercatchment—case study (SE Poland) Łukasz Chabudziński, Dominik Szulc, Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik & ZdzisławMichalczyk To cite this article:  Łukasz Chabudziński, Dominik Szulc, Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik &Zdzisław Michalczyk (2017): Changes in the location and function of small water bodies inthe upper Sanna River catchment—case study (SE Poland), Landscape Research, DOI:10.1080/01426397.2017.1296939 To link to this article: Published online: 29 Mar 2017.Submit your article to this journal Article views: 61View related articles View Crossmark data  LANDSCAPE RESEARCH, 2017 Changes in the location and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment—case study (SE Poland)  Łukasz Chabudziński a , Dominik Szulc b , Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik  a  and Zdzisław Michalczyk  a a Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Maria-Curie Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland; b Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland ABSTRACT The article summarises the results of analyses of temporal and spatial changes in the location of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment between the fifteenth and twenty-first centuries. The investigations were conducted on historical sources and cartographic data using GIS tools and inventory files. Natural (location of springs, groundwater depth, geomorphology of valleys), anthropogenic factors (quarries, excavations) and historical determinants of construction of the water reservoirs are presented. Additionally, changes in the economic (fish farming, mills), defence and industrial (paper and steel mills, bloomeries, fulleries) functions of the water bodies have been analysed. The changes in the functions of the water bodies were often influenced by the changing ownership. The results have application significance on a local and regional scale. Introduction Small water bodies are an important element of the environment (Mioduszewski, 2006); they diversify the agricultural and urban landscape and increase its biodiversity (Davies, Biggs, Williams, Lee, & Thompson, 2008; Williams, Whitfield, & Biggs, 2008). Moreover, they improve the structure of water resources in areas managed by man. Yet, their retention role is frequently uncontrollable and difficult to measure, since it largely depends on atmospheric precipitation. It should be emphasised that such water bodies are used as fire protection and retention reservoirs as well as for economic purposes as water drawing sites (e.g. for household purposes), fish farming, as well as rest and recreation.Small water bodies have accompanied humankind since prehistoric times (Raab, 1975; Strother, 2008). Results of detailed archaeological research and advanced spatial analysis suggest that such water bodies played a key role in settlement and had an impact on the direction of human migration in the past (Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Mroczek, & Chabudziński, 2012). Water was usually accumulated near settlements in genetically natural terrain depressions formed in piping, fluvial, karst and landslide processes.The term ‘small water bodies’ means natural or anthropogenic water retention reservoirs. They are usually shallow and have a varied surface area—from very small, persisting in local depressions on an impermeable substrate to reservoirs with a surface area of several thousand square metres. Such water bodies can be filled with water permanently or temporarily (Biggs, Williams, Whitfield, Nicolet, & Weatherby, 2005; Collinson et al., 1995; Kajak, 2001). This group also comprises ponds, which are defined KEYWORDS Water body; Sanna River; GIS; small retention; landscape © 2017 Landscape Research Group Ltd CONTACT  Łukasz Chabudziński  2 Ł. CHABUDZIŃSKI ET AL. as natural or artificial shallow hollows filled with water (Kajak, 2001). Among the many definitions (e.g. Collinson et al., 1995; Renwick, Carlson, & Hayes-Bohanan, 2005; Willis & Neal, 2012), in this paper, we have adopted the definition of water bodies proposed by De Meester et al. (2005), according to which, ponds are small (1.0 m 2  to ca. 50 000.0 m 2 ), man-made or natural, shallow waterbodies that hold water permanently or temporarily.In Poland, construction of small water bodies started during the period of economic growth accompanied by an increased demand for water. The process accelerated in the thirteenth century. Foundation (location) of villages based on the so-called German law was widespread at that time. A key role in functioning and development of rural areas was ascribed to management of water resources. Fishponds were constructed, as they increased the income of the village owner or the pond renter (through the so-called lease). In the late Middle Ages and the modern era, fishponds were common elements of grange farming (Kwiatkowski, 2012), likewise in other countries (e.g. Strother, 2008). So far, there have been no data reports on the number and surface area of small water bodies in Poland between the thirteenth and twenty-first centuries. Currently, fishponds cover an area of 747.3 km 2 , which accounts for .24% of the surface area of Poland. Such ponds in the Lublin Province cover 57.0 km 2 , which represents .23% of its total area (Cieśla & Żelazny, 2014).Assessment of the role and importance of water bodies in spatial management of an area is associated with access to data specifying the number, distribution, srcin and functions of small water bodies (Downing et al., 2006; McDonald, Rover, Stets, & Striegl, 2012). Considerable attention is focused on the problems of the inventory and location of small water bodies (Christensen, Nash, Chaloud, & Pitchford, 2015; Juszczak, 2001; Smith, Renwick, Bartley, & Buddemeier, 2002), their role in the landscape (Bielecka, 2006; Bosiacka & Pieńkowski, 2004), importance in nature (Williams et al., 2004), and conservation thereof (Biggs et al., 2005; Boothby, 1999; Oertli et al., 2005). In contrast, the problem of temporal and spatial changes is addressed less frequently. This assessment is usually based on aerial photographs and maps (Fairchild, Robinson, Brainard, & Coutu, 2012; Ignatius & Jones, 2014) and, less frequently, on analysis of written historical sources and maps as a source of information about the natural environment and changes therein caused by human activity (Plit, 2006; Suchożebrska & Chabudziński, 2007). In recent years, particular attention has been placed on the important role of GIS in verification of historical cartographic representations (Hawthorne, 2011; Nita & Myga-Piątek, 2012) as well as spatial presentation of changes in the historical landscape and the geographical background of historical events and phenomena (Bodenhamer, Corrigan, & Harris, 2010; Gregory & Ell, 2007; Holdsworth, 2003; von Lünen & Travis, 2013; Mościcka, 2009; Szady, 2008; Towers, 2011; Withers, 2009). The question of the potential of using GIS for inventories of small water bodies and spatial analysis has also been addressed (Chaney, Boyd, & Polioudakis, 2012; Fairchild et al., 2012; Fatyga, Żyszkowski, & Helis, 2009; Gidaszewski, Piber-Zbieranowska, Suproniuk, & Zbieranowski, 2013; Ignatius & Jones, 2014). The analysed area covers the 194.8 km 2  Sanna River catchment delimited by Potoczek, as specified in the hydrographic division of Poland (Czarnecka, 2005). The catchment is located on the border of three physical-geographical units (Kondracki, 2002): Lublin Upland and Roztocze Hills, characterised by varied landforms with denivelations exceeding 50 m, and the Sandomierz Basin (Figure 1). The landforms comprise distinct plateaus dissected by deep river valleys and dry valleys. There are also distinct morphological escarpments. A vast majority of the catchment area is formed of marls, gaizes and Late-Cretaceous limestone locally covered by Neogene limestone and sands. These are covered by Quaternary boulder clay of Elsterian glaciation, sands of Saalian glaciation and loess (Wągrowski, 1996). The valley bottoms are filled by fluvial and deluvial deposits. The thickness of the Quaternary deposits in the valleys exceeds several tens of metres, and forms a 2–5 m-thick layer on the plateaus. The ground waters in the river valleys are present under the ground surface, whereas in the plateau areas they persist at a depth of 20–40 m. Groundwater recharges the rivers via springs characterised by high discharge rates, often exceeding 100 dm 3  s −1  (Michalczyk, 1993). Arable land covering a vast majority of the catchment area represents the dominant form of land management. Meadows occupy only the bottoms of the narrow valleys and forests are located on terrain with the highest slope. Rural  LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 3 developments of the waldhufendorf and linear settlement types are concentrated slightly above the valley bottoms and along the main roads in the plateau area (Figure 1).Currently, there are approximately 70 natural water-filled depressions in the upper Sanna River catchment. The approximation of the number is associated with the lack of reliable information about their srcin. Furthermore, their number may vary depending on the meteorological conditions. The surface area of the water bodies varies as well: it ranges from 1.0 to 6000.0 m 2  likewise their maximum depth—from several tens of centimetres to a few metres. Natural water bodies are located at different positions with respect to the landforms. Those located on the plateau tops are dominant. Some others are situated in the upper parts of slopes and in the dry sections of denudation valleys. Given the features of the geological structure (Harasimiuk, Henkiel, & Pękala, 1971; Maruszczak, 1954), it should be emphasised that the water bodies fill natural land depressions formed of Late Cretaceous and Neogene carbonate rocks, glacial sediments and loesses. However, the genesis of these depressions has not been fully elucidated. A majority of natural small water bodies are located within the limits of rural developments or in their close proximity. Some of them were constructed or adapted for economic purposes (accumulation of water), whereas others are used for fish farming or recreation.The objective of the study is to analyse changes in the location and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment that occurred between the fifteenth to twenty-first century. The analysis was based on written historical sources as well as spatial data derived from cartographic materials and collected in the field study. We also indicated natural and economic factors influencing the genesis and distribution of small water bodies and at identification of their function occurring throughout the analysed period. Material and methods The basic cartographic materials included: (1) the Quartermaster’s Map of (New) Western Galicia by Colonel Anton Mayer von Heldensfeld at a scale of 1:28 000; (2) the Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom from 1839 at a scale of 1:126 000; (3) the Karte des westlichen Russlands from 1915 at a scale of 1:100 000 printed in 1936; (4) the Tactical Map of Poland by the Military Institute of Geography (WIG Figure 1. Location of the upper Sanna River catchment (Source: Author).  4 Ł. CHABUDZIŃSKI ET AL. map) at a scale of 1:100 000 printed in 1936; (5) Topographic Maps of Poland at scales of 1:10 000, 1: 25 000, 1:50 000, and 1:100 000 from the 1980s; (6) a topographic map at a scale of 1: 100 000, GUGiK ‘80’ system; (7) an orthophotomap from 2007; and (8) an orthophotomap from 2010. Data on the current location of the water bodies were collected directly in the field study with the use of GPS receivers in 2013. The results of the cartographic investigations were completed and verified with historical material, i.e. written reports dating back to the fifteenth century. The maps were processed in the ArcGIS 10.2 software, in which they were calibrated in the geodetic coordinate system. For georeferencing, a first order polynomial was used as a transformation method. In accordance with the principles of the retrogression method, the Polish Geodetic Coordinate System 1992 , currently in force for maps at a scale of 1:10 000 and bigger, was adopted as the basic mapping system. The next step involved development of thematic layers in the shapefile format for each analysed map. They represented the number (Table 1) and spatial distribution of small water bodies, which were assigned attributes that characterised their type (natural, anthropogenic) and location in relation to landforms (plateau, slope, valley).The analysis of changes in the spatial distribution and function of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment was carried out in several aspects. This was related to the ‘quality’ (accuracy) of the cartographic materials available for this area and information contained in the historical sources. It is difficult to compare e.g. the spatial data provided by the 1:126 000 Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom to the content of the 1:10 000 Topographic Map or the data obtained directly in field studies in 2013. In these circumstances, the investigations were limited to analysis of the location of the water bodies between 1843 to the 1980s and between the 1980s and 2013. We also identified factors determining the construction of small water reservoirs and changes in their function occurring throughout the analysed period. Table 1. Number and surface area of small water bodies in the upper Sanna River catchment according to different sources. Input data—name of the mapCharacteristics of the maps Characteristics of the water bodiesYear of drawingYear of printingScaleNumberSurface area (km 2 ) Quartermaster’s Map of (New) Western Galicia by Colonel Anton Mayer von Heldensfeld1779–17831801—original version, 1808—printed by H. Benedicti1:28 800—srcinal version, 1:172 800—printed version14—srcinal version, 10—printed version.628Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom (Quartermaster’s Map)Before 183118431:126 00010.538Karte des westlichen RusslandsNo data19151:100 00016.618Tactical Map of Poland of the Military Institute of GeographyNo data19291:100 000711.381Topographic Map at 1: 100 000 scale, GUGiK ‘80’ system1973–197419821:100 000471.003Topographic Maps of Poland at 1:10 000 scaleThe 70s–90s of the twentieth centuryThe 70s–80s of the twentieth century1:10 0002411.317Topographic Maps of Poland at 1:25 000 scalesThe 70s–90s of the twentieth centuryThe 70s–80s of the twentieth century1:25 0002151.270Orthophotomap200720071:50003771.757Orthophotomap201020101:50004211.849Orthophotomap from 2010 completed with field data 201320101:50005171.856
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