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Introduction and Preliminary Assessment of Cist Tombs in Gahvāre District, Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

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In summer 2015, during the preliminary survey to identify the tombs of Gahvāre district, about ten cemeteries were recorded including Mar Khāmūsh, Gawraǰūb, Berya Khāni, Safar Shāh, and Chenār. Structurally the tombs of these cemeteries have similar
    International Journal of Archaeology 2016; 4(6-1): 1-7 !oi: 10.1164"/j.ij.s.2016040601.11 #$$%: 2&&0-7'"7 (rint); #$$%: 2&&0-7'' (*nline)   Introduction and Preliminary Assessment of Cist Tombs in Gahvāre District, Kermanshah Province, estern Iran Samer Nazari 1, * , Marzieh Sha'rbaf  1 , Shahram Parseh 2 , Ali Asghar Salahshoor 1   1 +,. r!ute! in ,rcheolog ,rt niersit o 3shn 3shn #rn 2 +,. r!ute! in ,rcheolog $hhreor! niersit 5hhrmhl n! htiri #rn   Email address:   nrismer8 ($. %ri) 9 5orrespon!ing uthor To cite this article: $mer %ri +rieh $hrb $hhrm rseh ,li ,sghr $lhshoor. #ntro!uction n! reliminr ,ssessment o 5ist ombs in h<re =istrict >ermnshh roince ?estern #rn.  International Journal of Archaeology . $pecil #ssue: ,c!emic @eserch or +ulti!isciplinr. Aol. 4 %o. 6-1 2016 pp. 1-7. !oi: 10.1164"/j.ij.s.2016040601.11 Receied : +rch " 2016; Acce!ted : + 2' 2016; P"blished : Bune 21 2016 Abstract: #n summer 201' !uring the preliminr sure to i!enti the tombs o h<re !istrict bout ten cemeteries were recor!e! inclu!ing +r >h<mCsh wrDCb er >h<ni $r $h<h n! 5hen<r. $tructurll the tombs o these cemeteries he similr etures. #n their constructions lrge stone slbs h! been use! in our si!es. ,ter putting the !e!  bo! the cp stone ws plce! on it n! then it ws coere! with  pile o smll n! lrge stones. +ost o the tombs were  plun!ere! which mes them !iicult to !te. hereore on the bsis o ew potter oun! rom +r >h<mCsh cemeter s well s comprtie stu!ies with other gres o centrl Egros the !te o #ron ,ge ## n! ### is suggeste!. he im o this  pper is to increse our nowle!ge bout the #ron ,ges gres in the centrl Egros. Furthermore some potsher!s rom wrDCb cemeter he been oun! which were comprble with rthin potter bse! on orms n! technicl etures. #t seems tht the potter is liel to be intrusie or its presence suggests reuse o the gres in the rthin perio!. he rcheologicl eGctions re nee!e! to clri this chronolog n! to chiee more precise results. #e$%ords: #rn >ermnshh h<re 5emeter 5ist ombs #ron ,ge 1& (trod"ctio( he buril tr!ition outsi!e the resi!entil res n! insi!e cemeteries ws begun in the & r!  millennium; but the  phenomenon ws not er common in this millennium n! with the strt o the #ron ,ge cemeteries were remrbl increse! in most prts o #rn (li 2002: 17' 177). #n the course o time spre! o rious cemeteries inclu!ing the western hl o the #rnin plteu is notble. $o with respect to the rcheologicl ctiities in western prts rious cemeteries cn be mentione! such s: ish-i >uh n! usht-i >uh (Herinc I *erlet 1" 1 2004; *erlet 200&; Hsnpur et l. 201') epe i<n (5ontenu I hirshmn 1&') epe Cr<n (hrne 2001) 5hngb<r (%ghshineh et l. 2011) Egros rer! in >ur!istn (,melir! et l. 2011) n! $hirh-penh cemeter in #lm proince (=ou!i I Htmi 2012) which mostl he stone constructions. ,lso !uring the rcheologicl sure in h<reh !istrict seerl cemeteries were i!entiie! with slight !ierences in ppernce. he he oten situte! mong the mss o o trees on the mountins slope or ri!ge. ,lthough seerl reserches he been un!erten in reltion to the buril tr!itions in western #rn the stone cist tombs o h<re !istrict still remin hi!!en rom the ees o rcheologists. #n 200" n rcheologicl sure ws crrie! out in the h<re !istrict (Hohbri 200") howeer there ws no mention o the presente! cemeteries where most o the tombs h! been plun!ere! oer times n! no rcheologicl iel! wors he been crrie! out there heretoore. hus in the present pper the uthors !eci!e! to intro!uce n! speci those cemeteries s well s me them nown to the reserchers n! rcheologists. 2& Methodolog$ ) b+ecties his reserch is bse! on both iel! metho! n! librr metho!. ,ccor!ing to the locl reports in or!er to presence o  2 $mer %r et al. : #ntro!uction n! reliminr ,ssessment o 5ist ombs in h<re =istrict >ermnshh roince ?estern #rn seerl cemeteries in mountinous regions o h<re !istrict  iel!wling sure hs been con!ucte! b the uthors. 3ch cemeter ws !ocumente! b using lobl ositioning $stems ($) ting photos o tombs structure n! collecting the surce culturl mterils which were limite! to onl potsher!s. hen some o the tombs structure n! surce potsher!s were !etermine! or illustrtion n! the he been compre! with the i!entiie! smples o  peripherl regions. his preliminr stu! ime! to: - intro!uce n! elute the unnown stone cist tombs o h<re !istrict to he  better relition o the chronolog o this region. - proi!e  preliminr recor! o the remins n! me  plns or suril the unplun!ere! tombs which he not ttrcte! scholrl ttention et. - improe our un!erstn!ing o the potentil o the rcheologicl resource in western #rn. - me reserch !t ilble to the wi!est c!emic u!ience or uture inestigtion. & -eogra!hical .ocatio( h<re !istrict (lso nown s <r n! wreh) is locte! on the estern prt o =<l<hu 5ount >ermnshh roince #rn (Fig. 1). #t is sub!ii!e! into two rurl !istricts inclu!ing Jlh<ni n! ur<ni !istricts. he most importnt rier tht lows through h<re !istrict is clle! Eim<n @ier which en!s t #rK. he project o !m construction on this rier is on the gen! which will result in submergence n! !isppernce o mn rcheologicl sites into the !epth o wter. ,mong the rcheologicl sites cemeteries re the mjor prts which present lots o inormtion. #n the h<re !istrict mn cemeteries were i!entiie! in the mountinous conteGts (Fig. 2). #n the ollowing structures n! chrcteristics o the gres will be !iscusse! in !etil. Figure 1. Geographical map of Dālāhu County, Kermanshah Province,  Iran. Illustration by the mapping an GI! groups of Kermanshah province  general governor.   Figure 2.  "ocation of the cemeteries mentione in the te#t.   /& The 0emeteries 5hen<r cemeter: &4L 14 46.7"M % 46L 27 27."0M 3 172 m ,$N. his cemeter is locte! oer the mountin ri!ge in the south o 5hen<r illge. wo tombs he been oun! here t  !istnce o bout one ilometer rom ech other. his re h! more tombs in the pst but the he been !estroe! in the contemporr times n! it cuse! !iiculties in i!entiiction. he remine! tombs structures in!icte tht our si!es o the tomb h! been surroun!e! b gret boul!ers which present  rectngulr shpe. ,ter plcing the !ecese! in it the tomb ws coere! b some cp stones n! then the  pile o unwore! stones ws put on it. *ne o the gres mesures 1.'0 b 0.7" m with  !epth o 0.7" m. his gre ws coere! with  cp stone mesure! 1.40 b 0.'' m which hs been moe! b looters (Figs. &-4). %o culturl mteril hs been oun! in this cemeter. Figure 3.  A plunere grave in Chenār cemetery. Figure 4.  A grave$s cap stone in Chenār cemetery.   er >h<ni cemeter: his cemeter !ii!e! into , n!  prts. ,re , (&4L 17 44."M % 46L 2& &".0&M 3 1"&' m ,$N) is locte! c. '00 meters to the western er >h<ni illge (lso 10 meters to the south o h<re to er   #nterntionl Bournl o ,rcheolog 2016; 4(6-1): 1-7 & >h<ni route). Fortuntel some gres still remin intct so it is  er importnt issue to he  precise chronolog. he gres he been m!e with gret stones n! then coere! b rious stones. his structure is isible through !estroe! tombs (Fig. '). here is  possibilit bout using bon! stones in construction o some o the gres. *ne o the plun!ere! gres mesures 1.60 b 0.7' m with  !epth o 0.&0 m running est-west. Figure 5.  %erya Khāni cemetery &Area A'. ,re  (&4L 17 '".00M % 46L 22 4.70M 3 1'4& m ,$N) is situte! c. one ilometer to the southwest o er >h<ni illge n! bout 1 ilometer to the est o $r $h<h illge in the oothill o mountin. here is no prticulr geogrphicl !irection !ue to roc be! o this re. he gres he rious !imensions (Fig. 6). +ore thn seen gres he been i!entiie! here. %o culturl mterils O which re helpul in tombs chronolog - he been oun!.  the w there is n ncient moun! bout &00 meters to the southern re , n! eGctl between ,re , n! . he rcheologicl ctiit is necessril suggeste! in this moun! in or!er to he  better nlsis n! to !te the gres (Fig. 7). Figure 6.  %erya Khāni cemetery &Area %'. Figure 7.  An ancient moun bet(een Area A ) %. $r $h<h cemeter: his cemeter is sub-!ii!e! into three prts inclu!ing ,  n! 5. ,re , (&4L 1" 02.'"M % 46L 22 02.4"M 3 1'7 m ,$N) is locte! oer the mountin or bout '00 meters to the southest o $r $h<h Aillge. he Eim<n @ier runs in this illge. +ore thn thirt gres re i!entiible in this cemeter. #t shoul! be mentione! tht some o the gres he not et been complete!. ,nother point is tht !espite 5hn<r n! er >h<nis gres some o the gres loors he been m!e o lt cre! stone (Fig. "). Figure 8. !afar !hāh cemetery &Area A'.   ,re  (&4L 1" &0.04M % 46L 21 '4.44M 3 162' m ,$N) is situte! in the southern prt o the $r $h<h illge on summit o the mountin. ,bout 400 meters to it i.e. eGctl in the illge the Eim<n rier is isible. $tructurll the gres o , n!  re sme s er >h<ni. he lso he  been m!e b gret slb stones in our si!es n! ter putting the cp stones the were coere! b smll n! lrge stones s the loo moun!-lie n! will be esil i!entiie!. he gres he !ierent !imensions. *ne o them mesures 1.2&  b 0.6' m n! 0.6' m. here re more thn ten gres in this cemeter. %o culturl mterils he been oun! neGt to them (Fig. ). Figure 9. !afar !hāh cemetery &Area %'.   $eerl gres were reporte! in  short !istnce (c. 700 meters) to the south o $r $h<h  cemeter n! besi!e griculturl ln!s o n<n +ountin. he re speciie!  4 $mer %r et al. : #ntro!uction n! reliminr ,ssessment o 5ist ombs in h<re =istrict >ermnshh roince ?estern #rn s ,re 5 (Fig. 10). hese gres re similr to re  on the  bsis o structure nturl con!itions n! loction. ,n ncient gret moun! is isible neGt to the $r $h<h illge. ,rcheologicl ctiities re suggeste! in or!er to he   better chronolog or these gres. Figure 10. !afar !hāh cemetery &Area C'. wrDCb cemeter: &4L 1" 4'.7'M % 46L 21 &1.'7M 3 164 m ,$N. his cemeter is locte! on the summit o mountin in estern wrDCb illge. he gres lie in contrr to $r $h<h  cemeter neGt to the n<n griculturl ln!s n! lso ner the Eim<n @ier. he re similr to $r $h<hs gres bse! on structure enironmentl con!itions n! egettion. Fiteen gres were reporte! in this cemeter. *ne o them mesures 1.&'  b 0.60 m with  !epth o 0.60 m (Fig. 11). esi!e two gres seerl potsher!s belonge! to the rim bo! n! hn!le he been oun! which re comprble with the rthin potter on the bsis o technicl chrcteristics. Figure 11. Ga(ra*+b cemetery.   +r >h<mCsh cemeter: &4L 2& 11."6M % 46L 17 14.2M 3 1647 m ,$N. ,ter ut $h<mi illge neGt to the ut $h<mi - Aeleh route the mous ce is locte! nown s +r >h<mush. $hortl ter this ce (c. 200 meters to its west) there is  ro! through which we cn rech to  cemeter situte! in the mountin oothill (Fig. 12). $tructurll the gres re similr to the preious ones. $ome o them re clerl isible n! there is no stone pile on them (Fig. 1&). #n this cemeter more thn eight gres with est-west !irection re i!entiible. $ome o them he been loote! n! the others still remin intct (Fig. 14). 5rring out rcheologicl ctiities cn help us to he  better un!erstn!ing n! more precise !ting or the gres. nortuntel some prts o this cemeter he been !estroe! becuse o peripherl rmln!s eGpnsion. here re mn potsher!s relte! to hn!le bo! rim n! bse o the wres in the rmln!s locte! !ownwr! o the cemeter (c. 10 m to it) some o which re collecte! !ue to stu!ing n! !ting the cemeter. #t will be mentione! in the ollowing. Figure 12. he e#tent of -ar Khām+sh cemetery. Figure 13.  A plunere tomb in -ar Khām+sh cemetery.   Figure 14.  -ar Khām+sh cemetery.   #nterntionl Bournl o ,rcheolog 2016; 4(6-1): 1-7 ' & Tombs Str"ct"re   ,s mentione! preiousl ll tombs o reporte! cemeteries he  similr structure. he gres h! no speciic !irection n! !ierent !irections cn be seen een in  single cemeter. ,ll o the gres he been built with stones ilble roun! the sites without using n mortr.   he tomb hs been constructe! with lrge stone slbs n!  boul!ers which were plce! in our si!es o it. ,ter putting the !e! bo! the cp stone ws let on it n! then it ws coere! with smll n! lrge unwore! stones. his in! o  buril pit coerge with one or more cp stones he been reporte! seerl times (*erlet 200&: 6&). #t seems tht most o the gres he no trces o stone loor but some o them in $r $h<h cemeter re eGceptionl n! the sme in! o roc stone be! hs been use! s the loor. $imilr eGmples he been reporte! rom >lwli >utl-# ulgul =urueh n! r!-# l cemeteries (#bi! 66). #n generl some prllels with h<re gres structures he been reporte! mostl rom the gres which belong to the #ron ,ge ## which re well-nown through elgium eGctions in the >lwli epe n! usht-# >bu! (which re in rectngulr shpe with stone slbs). his tpe o gres re  goo! in!ictor or !ting (Herinc I *erlet 2010: &04 !-e; *erlet 200&: &24 &&-&42 l. 17-21 22-40; 200': l. 7). =uring rcheologicl eGction in #lm  meglithic cemeter hs been oun! tht on the bsis o  potter brone n! iron mterils it ws !te! to the #ron ,ge ## (c. 1000-"00  . 5 .). $ome o its gres h! stone structure n! were comprble with our mentione! tombs ($oto-@iesle 1"&: 17 igs. '-6). & Archaeological 3ata he culturl mterils oun! rom this preliminr sure re limite! just to the smll Kuntit o potsher!s. #t is cler tht these !t !o not let us to he  comprehensie result or the chronolog o the cemeteries. %eertheless !uring the sure ew sher!s he been oun! ner wrDCb n! +r >h<mCsh cemeteries. otter relte! to wrDCb is prllel with the rthin potter bse! on the orms n! technicl chrcteristics. hese sher!s inclu!e rim hn!le n! bo! o wres. he ltter ws !ecorte! with cor!ge moti n! hs  been reporte! rom mn rthin sites such s isotun (,libigi 2010: l. 7) Jleh-# P!igir! (%ri 2014: l. &2-&&) n! etc. (ble 1: 1). ,s mentione!  stright eerte!  jr rim hs lso been oun! here (ble 1: 2) which is  !ignostic tpe in mn rthin sites such s +<hnesh<n (>hosrow!e I ,li 2004: l. ": 7-12) n! isotun (>leiss 170: ,bb. 26:12). Table 1. Comparative able of Pottery from Ga(ra*+b Cemetery. N o.  0emeter$ Sherds Parallels Site Refere(ces 1 wrDCb isotun ,libigi 2010: l. 7 Jleh-# P!igir! %ri 2014: l. &2:  2 wrDCb +<hnesh<n >hosrow!e I ,li 2004: l. ": " isotun >leiss 170: ,bb. 26:12   $urce potter ten rom the +r >h<mCsh cemeter is !ii!e! into bowls n! jrs. +ostl the re well-ire! wheel-m!e with minerl temper. he colors o interior n! eGterior surces inclu!e  rnge o bu ornge brown n! rrel gr. owls re sub-!ii!e! into rious orms on the  bsis o rim inclu!ing: bowl with n eerte! lttene! rim (ble 2: 1). %o. 1 cn be compre! with the bowl reporte! rom o!in ## (Poung I Neine 174: ig. 46: 24). ,nother orm inclu!es  bowl with n eerte! pointe! rim n!  grooe below the rim (ble 2: 2); its similrities he been reporte! rom the #ron ,ge sites such s HsnlC #A (Poung 16': ig. 6: 4) <b<j<n (o +e!e 16": ig. 10: 7) o!in ## (Poung I Neine 174: ig. 4': 1&) n! with slightl !ierence in proile rom Eiwie (Poung 16': ig. &: &). %eGt orm is  bowl with stright roun!e! rim n!  grooe below the rim (ble 2: &); it seems tht this tpe o  bowl ollowe! tr!ition o some bowls intro!uce! rom Ht<n A in ccor!nce with #ron ,ge # (li 200': ig. 1). his orm lso occurre! mongst Eiwie common wre (Poung 16': ig. &: ').
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