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“From Chaos to coherence”: Anthropological analysis of commingled human remains from Tomb Saff-1 at El-Khoha Hill in Qurna

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Anthropological investigations of the human bone material from the excavation of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission at the southern slope of el-Khoha Hill started in 2011 and continued in 2014. The analysis was completed on the commingled
  Edited by Katalin Anna Kóthay  BURIAL AND MORTUARY PRACTICES IN LATE PERIOD AND GRAECO-ROMAN EGYPT  BURIAL AND MORTUARY PRACTICES IN LATE PERIOD AND GRAECO-ROMAN EGYPT Proceedings o he Inernaional Conerence held a Museum o Fine Ars, Budapes, 󰀱󰀷–󰀱󰀹 July 󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀴Edied by Kaalin Anna Kóhay  Museum o Fine Ars, Budapes 2017  CONTENTS FOREWORDI TEXTS, OBJECTS, ICONOGRAPHY AND RITUALS On he Naure o Ancien Egypian Funerary Riuals 11 Marin Andreas Sadler eory and Pracice/ex and Mummies: e Insrucions 21 o he ‘Embalming Riual’ in he Ligh o Archaeological Evidence Susanne öper De la Déesse de l’Occiden à Nou. La renaissance du déun 33 d’après le sarcophage de Ny-Her (Caire 8390) Nadine Guilhou Offering Liss in he Large Lae Period Shaf ombs a Abusir 45 Ladislav Bareš Szépművészei Múzeum Budapes 51.2523 und 51.2534: Au der Suche nach Konex 51 und Funkion von Modellgeäßgruppen au gemeinsamer Basisplate Silke Graller Die Rekonsrukion riueller Handlungen: Funkionale Analyse 61 und Konexualisierung von Keramik aus einem polemäisch-römischen Gräbereld in Mitelägypen Mandy Mamedow  Images o Papyrus Rolls in Vignetes o he  Book of the Dead   71 Mykola arasenko II BURIAL CONTEXTS Re-use and Modificaion o a Saff  -omb on he Souh Slope o el-Khokha, ebes 83 Zolán Imre Fábián‘ From Chaos o Coherence󲀙: Anhropological Analysis o Commingled 91 Human Remains rom omb Saff  -1 a El-Khoha Hill in Qurna Orsolya László  Aspecs solaires e osiriens des ombes monumenales ardives de l󲀙Asasi 103 Silvia Einaudi e  Book of Snakes  rom he omb o Iuaa a Abusir 111 Renaa Landgráová and Jiří Janák  Once Again on he Soer omb and he Soer Group 123 Gábor Schreiber Späzeiliche und griechisch-römische Menschenbesatungen 131 am Ibioapheion von una el-Gebel Mélanie C. Flossmann-Schüze e Majesy o Apis has Gone o Heaven: Burial o he Apis Bull 143 in he Sacred Landscape o Memphis during he Lae Period (664‒332 BCE) Nenad Marković  III BURIAL EQUIPMENT: COFFINS AND ASSOCIATED MATERIAL e wo Ses o Coffins o Isemkheb D rom he Royal Cache (T 320, weny-firs Dynasy) 157 Maya Müller Creaiviy and radiion in he Coffin o Padiamun (Liverpool 1953.72): 177  A Case Sudy o weny-fifh Dynasy Moruary Pracice  Alain Dauan, Ria Lucarelli, Luca Miaello, and Cynhia May Sheikholeslami Eine Gruppe späzeilicher Mumiensärge aus el-Hibeh 195 Bearix Gessler-Löhr Bemerkungen zu den sogenannen „weißen” Särgen der 25./26. Dynasie aus den Grabungen 241 der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin in Abusir el-Meleq (1902–1905) Sabine Schmid e Gamhud Funerary Maerial in Regional Conex 265 Kaalin Anna Kóhay  e Sexual Ideniy o Mummies and eir Sexualiy in he Hereafer: 275 Body Resoraion, Riual and Religious Belie   Alessandra Colazilli Demoic Linen Srips rom T -400- in Conex 283  Adrienn Almásy  New Research on Roman Period Mummy Masks: 291 e Case Example o he Budapes Museum o Fine Ars Collecion  Asja Müller Graeco-Roman Caronnage rom he Kellis 1 Cemeery 305 (Isman el-Kharab – Dakhleh Oasis): e Case o ombs 10 and 25 Carlo Rindi Nuzzolo Hypocephalus o he Doorkeeper o Amun in he Naional Museum in Warsaw Collecion 311 Pior Czerkwiński IV BEYOND THE BURIAL CONTEXT Shabis rom he Lae and Graeco-Roman Periods: 323 Proposal or he Classificaion (ypology) o Shabis Discovered Ouside Egyp Mladen omorad e Osirian Obelisk-shaped ‘Reliquaries’: New Evidence rom European Collecions 335 Simone Musso and Simone Peacchi  Muliheaded Proecor o he Living or he Dead? 345 Grzegorz Firs  FOREWORD e presen volume collecs papers presened a he inernaional conerence ‘Burial and Moruary Pracices in Lae Period and Graeco-Roman Egyp’ organised by he Egypian Deparmen o he Museum o Fine Ars, Budapes, and held on 17–19 July 2014. e aim o he conerence was o share up-o-dae inormaion and research on he unerary culure o Lae Period and Graeco-Roman Egyp, addressing boh pas and curren issues and hemes. In addiion o reconsidering and reinerpreing published ex and areacs, as well as previously known archae-ological sies, a special objecive was o inegrae ino he discussion unpublished maerials preserved in museum collecions, archival records relaing o earlier excavaions and research, as well as recen archaeological discoveries.e grea majoriy o he conribuions deal wih various aspecs o he unerary culure o he Lae and Graeco- Roman periods ( c. second hal o he firs millennium BC – firs hal o AD firs millennium). Ye he acual ime span covered by he volume is broader, exending back o he previous epoch, he ird Inermediae Period ( c.   firs hal o he firs millennium BC), a ime o innovaive re-inerpreaion o old mois and radiions in unerary culure, which can be seen as a saring poin or he semanic changes ha ook place in unerary symbolism during he second hal o he firs millennium BC. I is hen also essenial o invesigae aspecs o his earlier process, as is done by wo papers (Maya Müller; Alain Dauan, Ria Lucarelli, Luca Miaello, Cynhia May Sheikholeslami).is long period o he unerary hisory o Ancien Egyp presens a number o conradicory and unresolved issues, such as daing and chronological problems; inerpreing old conceps and radiions in changing conexs; reconsrucing srcinal burials and burial equipmen; inerpreing and reconsrucing riual pracices; ineracion o exual, visual and maerial represenaions; disinguishing regional varians o syles; ideniying collecives o arsiss and regional neworks o ariss producing he surviving unerary areacs; as well as esablishing y-pologies or various ypes o unerary objecs. ese are he main issues addressed by he papers, which provide a lis o perspecives on he inerpreaion o burial pracices and unerary belies o he period in quesion. e  various approaches, mehods and inerpreaions o he conribuors hence offer a comprehensive scope o and a very valuable conribuion o he presen sae o research.e firs chaper ( exts, objects, iconography and rituals ) ses ou o discuss issues concerning he ineracion be-ween riuals on he one hand, and heir represenaions in he burial conex in exual, visual and maerial orms, on he oher. e opening paper aims a undersanding he broader exual and riual conex and roos o he corpus o unerary lieraure (Marin Sadler). Te bulk o he conribuions in his chaper inerpre specific riual exs and objecs in erms o meaning, uncion and use (Susanne öper, Nadine Guilhou, Ladislav Bareš, Mandy Mamedow, Silke Graller), while he semanic and conexual changes o a paricular iconographic moi (he image o he papyrus scroll) associaed wih riuals, is also explained (Mykola arasenko). Te papers o he second chaper (  Burial contexts ) are organised in chronological order, and atemp o re- consruc and inerpre srcinal burial conexs or pars o conexs (Zolán Imre Fábián, Orsolya László, Gábor Schreiber, Mélanie Flossmann-Schüze), decoraion programmes in paricular ombs (Renaa Landgráová and  Jiří Janák; Silvia Einaudi), as well as o reconsruc sacred unerary landscape (Nenad Marković). e hird chaper (  Burial equipment: coffins and associated material ) is devoed o coffins and associaed objecs. Te firs wo conribuions are concerned wih paricular coffins and coffin ses (Maya Müller; Alain Dauan, Ria Lucarelli, Luca Miaello, Cynhia may Sheikholeslami), and demonsrae he high degree o creaiviy in unerary symbolism during he ird Inermediae Period. A disinc group o he papers ideniy and examine coffins srcinaing rom specific unerary sies in he norhern par o Middle Egyp, while also drawing conclu-sions on cerain aspecs o coffin producion and workshops in ha region (Beae Gessler-Löhr, Sabine Schmid, Kaalin Anna Kóhay). A nex group o papers ocus on cerain aspecs o he mummy, as well as o paricular objecs or objecs ypes direcly associaed wih i (Alessandra Colazilli, Adrienn Almásy, Asja Müller, Carlo Rindi Nuzzolo, Pior Czerkwiński).e ile o chaper our (  Beyond the burial context  ) reers back o he key poin o he opening conribuion o he volume (Marin Sadler), which suggess o see he roos o unerary exs and riuals in a complex exual and
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