Products & Services

24 pages
77 views

ENVIRONMENTAL & ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY (winter/spring 2018)

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 24
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
This EAP includes “items of interest” and “citations received.” We include a “book note” on anthropologists Christopher Tilley and Kate Careron-Daum’s Anthropology of Landscape, a phenomenology of how different users experience southwestern England’s
Transcript
    Environmental &    Architectural   Phenomenology   Vol. 29 ▪ No. 1   ISSN 1083–9194   Winter/Spring ▪ 2018   his  EAP  begins 29 years of pub-lication and includes the regular features of “items   of interest” and “ citations received. ”  We of-fer an “ in memoriam ”  for environmental  psychologist Bill Ittelson , who died this  past September. We include a “book note” on anthropologists Christopher Tilley  and Kate Careron- Daum’s  Anthropology of  Landscape , a phenomenology of how dif-ferent users experience southwestern Eng- land’s East Devon Pebblebed heathland . Longer entries begin with architect Thomas Barrie’s  review of architect Ben Jack’s    A House and Its Atmosphere . Ar-chitectural writer Barbara Erwine  re-counts her day-long experience of observ-ing and recording the social dynamics of a small central square in Spain’s Andalusian hilltown of El Bosque.  Next, geographer Edward Relph  con-siders the shifting relationship between  physical places and electronic media. Phi-losopher Dennis Pohl  examines philo-sophical studies that make connections be-tween architectural thinking and the ideas of philosopher Martin Heidegger . The is-sue ends with poetry: five poems by Texan  poet Sheryl L. Nelms ; and, as a tribute to Bill Ittelson , a poem , “Domed Edifice,” by American poet John Hollander .   Conferences  The 55 th  annual Making Cities Livable conference  will be held May 14  –  18, 2018, at Ottawa, Canada’s Shaw Center. The theme of the conference is “Healthy, 10 - Minute Neighborhoods.” www.livablecit-ies.org/call-papers.  The 49 th  annual meeting of the Environ-mental Design Research Association  (EDRA) takes place June 6  –  9, 2018, in Ok-lahoma City. The theme of the conference is “Social Equity.”  www.edra.org/.  The annual conference of the Interdisci-plinary Coalition of North American Phenomenologists  (ICNAP) will be held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 1  –  3, 2018. The conference theme is “Phenome- nology and Dialogue: Exploring Questions of Language, Inclusivity, and Accessibil- ity.”  www.ICNAP.org.  Sponsored by the Interdisciplinary Envi-ronmental Association  (IEA), the 24 th   In-ternational Interdisciplinary Confer-ence on the Environment  (IICE) takes  place in Montreal, June 22  –  24, 2018. The conference welcomes environmental aca-demics, practitioners, and interested col-leagues.  http://ieaonline.org/?page_id=68.    Below left: American Hudson River School artist Thomas Cole’s   The Architect’s Dream  (1839  –  40), a painting featured in art historian Annette Blaugrund’s Thomas Cole: The Artist as Architect  —  see p. 3.  Blaugrund writes that this painting [is] “an almost complete history of West  ern ar-chitecture, organized chronologically from  Egyptian in the distance to Gothic Revival in the left foreground. Many of the build-ings framing the sunlit lagoon likely de-rived from [architecture  pattern books]… . Yet Cole did not steadfastly follow [these models but] instead created an eclectic, in-tegrated landscape/cityscape of man-made elements, and … he took liberty with the spatial arrangement. The buildings are representative of styles ra-ther than records of specific building models; however, the Greek temples do bear resem-blance to the Ohio Statehouse [for which Cole submitted an entry in an 1838 architectural competition sponsored by the Ohio General Assembly; Cole’s entry won third place and eventually played a signif- icant role in the building’s fi- nal design and construction]. Toledo Museum of Art, To-ledo, Ohio; commons.wiki-media.org.   T      2   The annual International Human Sci-ences Research Conference  takes place June 24  –  28, 2018, at Wofford College in Spartanburg, South Carolina USA. The conference theme is “Phenomenology and Dialogue: Exploring Questions of Lan- guage, Inclusivity, and Accessibility.” http://www.wofford.edu/IHSRC/. The 6 th  annual conference, Philosophy of the City , will be held October 11  –  13, 2018, at the University of La Salle in Bo-gatá, Columbia. The conference is spon- sored by the “Philosophy of the City Re-search Group,” a global community of scholars “dedicated to understanding the city and urban issues.” For conference in- formation, go to:  www.philosophyofthecity.org.  The 22 nd   annual meeting of the Interna-tional Association for Environmental Philosophy  (IAEP) will be held October 20  –  22, 2018, at the Pennsylvania State University in College Park, Pennsylvania USA, immediately following the annual meetings of the Society for Phenomenol-ogy and Existential Philosophy (SPEP) and Society for Phenomenology and the Human Sciences  (SPHS), October 18  –  20, 2018. www.environmentalphilosophy.org/; www.spep.org/; http://www.sphs.info/. A conference of the Organization of Phe-nomenological Organizations  (OPO) will  be held in Memphis, Tennessee, January 3  –6, 2019. The meeting theme is “Phe-nomenology and Practical Life.” For infor-mation, go to:  www.memphis.edu/opo;   www.o-p-o-phenomenology.org. The Architecture, Culture, and Spiritu-ality Forum  (ACSF) will host a sympo- sium, “Displacement and Architecture,” May 22  –  25, 2018, in Miami, Florida. The symposium is co-sponsored by the School of Architecture, University of Miami; the Coral Gables Museum; AIA Miami; and The Aga Khan Award for Architecture. The symposium aims for a broad discus-sion among practitioners and scholars on the tangible and intangible dimensions of displacement, addressing the physical as well as spiritual ramifications of natural disaster, forced migration, deportation, and other modes of involuntary displacement. www.acsforum.org/symposium2018/index.htm.    Publishing items  Canadian environmental psychologist Robert Gifford , former editor of the  Jour-nal of Environmental Psychology , has pro- duced a brochure, “Environmental Psy-chology: Enhancing Our World,” which offers a useful introduction to research fo-cusing on the lived relationship between  people and physical environments. Topics covered include major research issues, ac-ademic and professional organizations, im- portant publications (including journals), graduate programs, and key researchers in the field. The booklet is available for downloading at: https://tinyurl.com/envpsych- booklet . Or, it can be requested at EBBro-chure@gmail.com .  Duquesne University Press  has an-nounced plans to work under a new model, rather than an initial plan (announced last spring) to close the press and end all publi-cations. DUP will no longer produce new titles but instead focus on reprinting cur-rent titles, making them available in paper and digital format as well as establishing an on-line, digital imprint. DUP’s  first new venture is launching the online  Duquesne  Journal of Phenomenology . One hopes that the appearance of this new journal in-timates the reprinting of the four volumes of the  Duquesne Studies in Phenomenolog-ical Psychology  (1971  –  1983), which re-main one of the most helpful demonstra- tions of “empirical” phenomenological re- search.  www.dupress.duq.edu/ . Published in Italy by the University of Bo-logna,  Encyclopaideia: Journal of Phe- nomenology and Education  is an interna-tional, peer-reviewed venue sponsoring ar-ticles on phenomenology and its value for education. Contributions are accepted in  both Italian and English. www.pub-lons.com/journal/24878/encyclopaideia-journal-of- phenomenology-and-education.  The  Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenome- nology  is a peer-reviewed, interdiscipli-nary, online journal that provides scholars in the Southern hemisphere with a venue for phenomenological research and writ-ing.  IPJP  is the official organ of the Inter-national Society for Existential Psychol-ogy and Psychotherapy.  http://www.ipjp.org/.    Citations received  Sigurd Bergmann, 2014. Reli- gion, Space, and the Environ- ment  . London: Transaction.   This Norwegian religious-studies scholar considers religion “not in relation to, but as a part of the spatiality and movement within the environment from which it arises and is nurtured.” Two of the book’s central concerns are “how space, place, and religion amalgamate and how lived space and lived religion influence each other.”  The sidebar, below, highlights what Borgmann calls “aesth/ethics”—“an inte- grated concept of aesthetics and ethics, where both stand not simply as equals side  by side but where aesthetics generates the space in which ethics can work and moral- ities can flourish.”   Ethics embraced by aesthetics   The concept of “aesth/ethics” brings aesthetics to the forefront of ethics. “Aesthetics” here is understood not as a theory of beauty in the narrow philo-sophical sense but as a discursive and artistic production and reflection of  practices and discourses on synaes-thetic perception, creation, and recep-tion. Following German philosopher Gernot Böhme, an ecological aesthet-ics is a self-aware human reflection on one’s living -in-particular-surroundings. The slash between aesthetics and eth-ics suggests two things. First, it signals the intention not to leave moral philos-ophy and ethics to themselves but to embed them continuously in bodily  perceptions. If ethics is defined as a discursive reflection on moral prob-lems, it becomes difficult to exclude  people’s mental capacities and to sepa- rate aesthetic competence from moral competence. Ethics, therefore, must be embraced  by aesthetics. The perception of moral  problems must precede their reflection and solution. It requires a sharp mind and the capacity of the senses to see our neighbor’s misery and to ans wer Cain’s question: “Lord, am I my  brother’s keeper?”  Second, prioritizing aesthetics over ethics shall prevent us from regarding More conferences   Symposium      3   ethics as a superior, dominant, and neo- colonial “modern ethics”   … The embodied and sensitive perception of oneself and others in a common envi-ronment will not only precede moral agency and reflection; it will also con-tinuously regulate it. The experience of space  —  not merely as a physically per-ceived space or an ideationally con-ceived space, but as at truly plastic lived space  —  is at the core of such a trialectic “aisthesis” embedding “ethos.”  This means that an aesth/ethics of landscapes , and especially of land-scapes experiencing dangerous envi-ronmental change, emphasizes bodily  perception of a landscape that is deeply integrated with rational reflection about its history, use, and management. In such an account, landscape is more than a territory, area, or scenery; it is complex human-ecologic space that emerges by “doing t he land-scape ”—  that is, by human practices in and with the landscape rather than simply observing and seeing it (pp. 209  –  12). Annette Blaugrund, 2017. Thomas Cole: The Artist as Architect. New York: Mona-celli Press.   The eminent American artist Thomas Cole  founded the first autonomous tradi-tion in American art  —  the Hudson River School of landscape painting. Signifi-cantly, Cole also designed a good number of buildings highlighted in this well-illus-trated volume, sponsored by upstate New York’s Thomas Cole National Historic Site, the home where Cole lived from 1836 until his premature death in 1848. Cole’s deep interest in architecture is il- lustrated in the  Architect’s Dream  (1839  –  40), the painting reproduced on the front  page of this  EAP  issue. Blaugrund de-scribes the human figure in the painting  —  the dreaming architect recumbent on a co- lossal column: “The figure reclines upon  books signifying his primary source of knowledge…. [Cole conveys] his belief that man’s greatest architectural achieve- ments are inspirational but transitory. It is  perhaps a reminder to a developing nation [i.e., the young United States] that archi-tecture survives the corruption and desola-tion of past civilizations, and it ennobles our existence and, although fleetingly, conveys our highest values.”   Tobias Boos, 2017. Inhabiting Cyberspace and Emerging Cyberplaces: The Case of Si- ena, Italy  . London: Palgrave.   This book explores the concept of cyber- place  as a mode of inhabiting the contem- porary world. Boos contends that, for many communities, unlocking cyberspace and inhabiting cyberplaces is now an inte-gral part of their coming-to-the-globalized-world. He reviews academic literature on cyberspace from cultural anthropology, human geography, and sociology. He con-cludes that a phenomenological perspec-tive contributes to a deeper understanding of current lifeworlds, in which on- and off-line practices constantly intermingle. In four chapters, he applies his conceptual  perspective to Siena, Italy’s neighbor- hoods, examining their websites and dis-cussing implications for understanding contemporary processes of community  building and for future research on cyber-space. Justin Carville, 2017. Life-worlds at the Edge of Europe: Photography, Place and Ire-land in the New Millennium. Journal of European Studies , vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1  –  21.   Drawing on the phenomenological concept of “lifeworlds,” this photographic re-searcher interprets the work of “several Irish photographers who circumvent the objectification and polar opposites of in-side and outside in representations of  place .” These photographers highlight “ the everyday connectedness and sense of be-longing of  people and their environments.”  Considering Irish photography since 2008, Carville argues that  presence  has emerged as a visual trope  —  a thematic means “to explore the everyday social re- lations between people and place follow-ing the transformations to the Irish land-scape as a result of the Celtic Tiger econ-omy of the 1990s and the financial collapse of 2008.”   Ruth Conroy Dalton and Christoph Hölscher, eds., 2017. Take One Building: In-terdisciplinary Research Per-spectives of the Seattle Cen-tral Library . London: Routledge. Th is book’s 12 chapters evaluate “ how we experience and understand buildings in different ways, depending upon our aca-demic and professional background. With reference to architect Rem Koolhaas’ Seat- tle Central Library, the book illustrates a range of different methods available through application to the same building.” Fields represented include architecture, ethnography, architectural criticism, phe-nomenology, sociology, environmental  psychology, and cognitive science. Chapters include: Shannon Mattern’s   “Just How Public is the Seattle Central Li- brary?”; Ruth Conroy Dalton’s   “OMA’s Conception of the Users of Seattle Central Library”; Kim Dovey’s   “One -Way Street”: David Seamon’s   “A Phenomeno-logical and Hermeneutic Reading of Rem Koolhaas’s Seattle Central Library: Build- ings as Lifeworlds and Architectural Texts”; Julie Zook  and Sonit Bafna’s   “The Feel of Space: Social and Phenome-nal Staging in the Seattle Central Library”; Karen Fisher   and colleagues’ “Seattle Central Library as a Place: Re-conceptual-izing Space, Community, and Information at the Central Library”; Saskia Kuliga’s   “Emotional Responses to Locations in the Seattle Central Library”; and Amy Shel-ton   and colleagues’ “Why Pe ople Get Lost in the Seattle Central Library.”   Barbara Erwine, 2017. Creat- ing Sensory Spaces: The Ar- chitecture of the Invisible. London: Routledge.   This designer works to bridge the commu-nication gap “between architectural and engineering professions around the design of thermal, light, acoustic, olfactory, and haptic space…. Moving beyond occular  -centric designs, this change in perspective empowers students to approach these areas of ‘environmental controls’ from the rich- ness of a design perspective. ”      4   Kirsten Jacobson and John Russon, eds., 2017. Percep-tion and Its Development in Merleau- Ponty’s Phenome-nology of Perception. To-ronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. The 15 chapters of this edited collection discuss “the continuing significance of Maurice Merleau- Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception . The chapters move “from the consideration of the most basic struc-tures of perceptual lfe to consideration of the deepest and richest aspects of our ex- pressive int erpersonal and political life.”  Chapters particularly relevant for  EAP readers include Jacobson’s   “Neglecting Space: Making Sense of a Partial Loss of One’s World through a P henomenological Account of the S  patiality of Embodiment”; Don Beith’s   “Moving into Being: The Mo- tor Basis of Perception, Balance, and Reading”; Noah Moss Brender ’s   “On the  Nature of Space: Getting from Motility to Reflection and Back Again”; and Stefan Kristensen’s   “Flesh as the Space  of Mour-ing: Merleau-Ponty Meets Ana Mendieta.” See the passage from t he editors’ introduc- tion, sidebar, below.   “the very nature of the real”   One of the most striking features of Maurice Merleau- Ponty’s Phenome-nology of Perception  —   perceptible al-ready in its mere table of contents  —  is that his study of perception begins with sensation and ends with freedom. Mer-leau- Ponty’s study makes clear that un-der the name “perception” are ranged all the forms of our apprehension of the real, from the most basic, minimal  phenomena of bare sensitivity to our engagement with the deepest matters of existence. What it takes to perceive cannot be determined without determining the very nature of the real, the very nature of that  , the true nature of which it is  perception’s mandate to apprehend. As reality itself runs the range from imme-diate sensible physicality through ani-mal life to the very depths of the soul and the mind, so will perception itself take different forms in its engagement with reality. This breadth of scope is intimately related to another aspect of  perception, one that is captured in Mer-leau- Ponty’s notion of the “primacy of  perception.”  Perception is not just one of the many things we do, it is not just an op-tional activity in which we might en-gage. Perception, rather, is our native element  : we exist as  practitioners of  perception. It is our nature to be wrapped up in situations that call forth from us the question of their truth; it is our nature to be engaged in the en-deavor to apprehend the truth of our situation. Typically, we think of ourselves as  parts of the world   —as “things” exist- ing in the world of nature  —  and we think of perception as one of our ca- pacities. We must note however, that our very sense that there is a world   is itself a phenomenon of perception . We are not organisms first and perceivers second; we are  perceivers, that is, we exist as  the fact  —  the act   —  of being aware, being responsive, and our very sense of ourselves as a “thing in the world” is itself a development of our  perception. Identifying ourselves as “the act of  perceiving,” however, must not be con- fused with identifying ourselves as a representing mind. Descartes, in his fa- mous argument that “I think therefore I am,” similarly identified us with the act of experience, but he construed this “I” as the detached, self  -contained mind from which the world is always inherently alien. We must recognize, on the contrary, that we are being-in-the-world  , that perception is not a  power that travels outward from some “inner” space toward an alien relati v-ity, but that, instead, perception is situ-ated, living engagement with the world (Jacobson and Russon, pp. 4  – 5).   Soren C. Larsen and Jay T. Johnson, 2017. Being To-gether in Place: Indigenous Coexistence in a More-than-Human World . Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press. Drawing partly on field research, these ge-ographers examine the role of place in trig-gering negotiation between Native and non-Native peoples. Three real-world situ-ations are presented: the Cheslatta Carrier traditional territory in British Columbia; the Wakarusa Wetlands in east-central Kansas; and the Waitangi Treaty Grounds in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Larsen and Johnson emphasize that places have “agency,” and this sense of place presence draws “communities into dialogue, rela- tionships, and action with human and non- human others.” The authors speak of a “new kind of ‘place thinking’… emerging on the borders of colonial power.”  See the sidebar, below.  A continued coexistence…   Heeding the call of place, the human and nonhuman communities in this  book are reaching out to each other, par-ticipating in difficult but productive cosmopolitical dialogue, and learning the protocols for their renewed relation-ships. They are working through the fraught questions of coexistence  —  not who belongs and on what grounds, but how to ensure the continued coexist-ence of all humans and nonhumans en-tangled in the places that create, teach, and speak the intrinsic and life-support-ive value of their being-together (Larsen & Johnson, p. 22). Vincent Miller, 2012. A Crisis of Presence: On-Line Culture and Being in the World. Space and Polity , vol. 16, no. 3 (Dec.), pp. 265  – 285. Drawing partly on philosophers Martin Heidegger and Emmanuel Levinas, this so-ciologist considers the ethical and behav-ioral implications of the internet's lack of  physical presence and bodily-being-to-gether. Miller writes: “[A]n important dis-  juncture exists between the largely liminal space of on-line interactions and the ethical sensibilities of material presence which, as these two spheres become more intensely integrated, has potential consequences for the future of an ethical social world and a civil society. The examples are used of on-line suicides, trolling, and cyberbullying to illustrate these ethical disjunctures.”  Since Miller wrote this article in 2012, the negative features of cyberspace have only intensified; his conclusions are pres-cient and do not bode well for the human    5   future. He extends his argument in The Crisis of Presence in Contemporary Cul-ture: Ethics, Privacy and Speech in Medi-ated Social Encounter   (Sage, 2016). See the sidebar, below, which includes a pas- sage from the conclusion of Miller’s arti- cle. “A   disembodied encounter ”   Modern communications technology has the ability to remove many of the restrictions related to physical distance from our social life. Yet distance is not only a material or geographical matter; it is also a social and ethical one. It takes more than technology to over-come social and moral distances... [I]n many respects, technology can even be used to create further social and ethical distances within a context of communi-cative proximity. We live in a technological culture where the distinction between [inter-corporeal] absence and presence is be-coming increasingly complicated through the use of communications technologies. If we accept the premise that the way we behave towards each other and care for each other is in some manner affected by our [physical] pres-ence or proximity towards each other, then a situation in which the distinction  between absence and presence is un-dermined poses a potential ethical  problem in that our spheres of influ-ence and interactions with others or our social presences, are no longer contigu-ous with our horizons of care, feelings of ethical responsibility, or physical  presence. I have suggested that this problem of presence can be articulated in two ways. First, on-line life exaggerates the metaphysical [i.e., beyond-physical] conceptualization of presence upon which modern conceptions of being-in-the-world are based. This ultimately  presents the world to us in instrumental terms, which, in terms of ethics, means that beings in the world are approached nihilistically: primarily as things to be used. Our use of technology merely in-tensifies this process, which ultimately enframes social life itself, objectifying and instrumentalising human relations. Secondly, I argued that the material,  bodily, face-to-face presence of others is the essence of ethical social encoun-ter and the feeling of responsibility to-wards others. Mediated interaction moves us into a disembodied encounter where the other l oses “face” and sub- stance, and therefore an ethical or moral compulsion. In both cases, metaphysical pres-ence encourages us to objectify others, and this arguably means that our sense of moral and ethical responsibility to others is weakened in favour of a sub- ject-centred, instrumental way of be-ing. This creates a fundamental contra-diction in contemporary culture, what I call a “crisis of presence,” in which we live in a world where we are increas-ingly connected and where our social horizons, interactions, influences and  presences are less and less spatially limited, but our horizons of care or re-sponsibility to others are still very much based on physical proximity (Miller, pp. 280  – 81). John Peponis, 2017. On the Pedagogical Functions of the City: A Morphology of Adoles-cence in Athens, 1967-1973. Journal of Space Syntax , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 219  – 251. This architect reconstructs his lived geog-raphy of growing up as an adolescent in Athens, Greece. He considers how “the spaces, movements, and perceptions of the city are inexorably linked with the evolu-tion of intentional actions, habitual behav- iors, and social interactions.” City places examined include apartments, cinemas, shops, eateries, bookstores, outdoor mar-kets, public places, natural landscapes, and significant streets and neighborhoods. Mark F. Riegner, 2013. Ances-tor of the New Archetypal Bi- ology: Goethe’s Dynamic Ty- pology as a Model for Con-temporary Evolutionary De-velopmental Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences , vol. 44, issue 4, part B, pp. 735  – 44. Drawing on Goethe’s understanding of  plant and animal morphology, this ecol-ogist describes a dynamic mode of typo-logical thinking that offers innovative in-sights as to the morphological patterns in living organisms. Riegner writes that, “contrary to the im-  plications of static typological thinking, dynamic typological thinking is perfectly compatible with evolutionary dynamics and, if rightly understood, can contribute significantly to the still emerging field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). For Riegner’s understanding of “ar-chetype,” s ee the sidebar, below. What is the archetype? Adhering to Goethe’s experience of dynamic typological thinking…, it is a worthwhile exercise to ask whether the archetype [a fluid concept that inter-connects the developmental structure of the organism  —  in other words, its “becoming” in time via shifting form], as so construed, is merely a mental ab-straction added to  the phenomena, or whether it has any claim to reality drawn out of   the phenomenon inde- pendent of a human mind to apprehend its characteristics. In other words, is it an organizing principle that plays a role in morphogenesis, development, and even organic evolution? This, evidently, is an ontological question, which I will not presume to answer except by exploring what I think would have approximated Goe- the’s interpretation. First, recalling the leaf metamorphosis example above [re- lating to Goethe’s plant archetype of Urpflanze ], what exists between the sensibly perceived elements  —  that is,  between the leaves  —  what moves  be-tween them, is as crucial to Goethean  phenomenology as the elements them-selves. In other words, the complete  plant phenomenon includes not only all the morphological structures but also the dynamic movement  —  that is, the set of objective, relational ideas  —  which links together each of the sepa-rate parts (note that the parts only ap- pear   as separate in a spatial dimen-sion). Furthermore, as I hope to have demonstrated, the dynamic movement of the developing plant, its coming-to-
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x