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Comparative Study between the Effect of Momordica charantia (Wild Type) Fruits andCoccinia cordifolia’s Leaf on Hypoglycemic...
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 Journal of Diabetes Mellitus · May 2014
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Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2014, 4, 115-123
How to cite this paper:
Islam, D.,
et al.
 (2014) Comparative Study between the Effect of
Momordica charantia
 (Wild Type) Fruits and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s Leaf on Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Long-Evans Rats.
 Journal of Diabetes Mellitus
,
4
Comparative Study between the Effect of
Momordica charantia
(Wild Type) Fruits and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s Leaf on Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Long-Evans Rats
Dipa Islam
1*
, Evena Parvin Lipy
2
, Samiur Rahman
2
, Liton Chandra Mohanta
2
, Khaledun Nahar Babi
3
 
1
Animal Research Section, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh
2
Animal Research Section, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh
3
BCSIR Laboratories Dhaka, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh Email:
*
dipaislam@bcsir.gov.bd Received 16 March 2014; revised 15 April 2014; accepted 22 April 2014 Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 
 Abstract
 Aims: The study was aimed to compare the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of
Momordica charantia
(wild type) fruits and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s leaf in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic Long- Evans rats. Methods: All rats were divided into groups A to H (n = 48, 06 rats per group). They were made diabetic by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate 150-mg/Kg-body weight. Groups A and B were provided with normal diet and glibenclamide plus normal diet respectively. C to H groups were provided with different percentages (70%, 50% and 30% of regular diet) of samples. Different biochemical parameters (blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglyce-ride (TG), LDL, HDL, serum insulin, hepatic glycogen) were observed for 21 consecutive days (at eight days interval). Results: Oral administration of both of the
Momordica charantia
(wild type) fruits and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s leaf significantly (
 p
 < 0.05) improved hypoglycemic status by de-creasing fasting blood glucose level. Hypolipidemic status also observed, and found improved sig-nificantly (
 p
 < 0.05) by decreasing the level of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), serum insu-lin level and LDL in type 2 diabetic rats. HDL levels were increased slightly and hepatic glycogen
*
Corresponding author.
 
D. Islam
et al.
 116
level was more or less unchanged in both groups at 22nd day. Conclusion: Though both samples show hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, 50% wild type fruits of
Momordica charantia
were more significant (
 p
 < 0.05) to ameliorate the diabetic state in type 2 diabetic Long-Evans rats.
Keywords
Diabetics, Alloxan Monohydrate, Hypoglycemia, Hypolipidemia
1. Introduction
Diabetes is a major degenerative disease in the world today [1], affecting at least 15 million people and having complications which include hypertension, atherosclerosis and microcirculatory disorders [2]. Diabetes mellitus is also associated with long-term complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and angiopathy and several others [3]. It is the most common endocrine disorder and by 2025 three hundred million will subse- quently have the disease [4] and largest number of diabetic people will be in India, China and United States [5]  [6]. Type 2 diabetes has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A recent epidemiological study in Bangladesh reported the prevalence of type 2 diabetes exceeding 11% and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, which precedes the onset of diabetes, exceeding 6% in Dhaka city [7]. In Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), a total of about 20,000 new cases of diabetes are di-agnosed every year. As for biological test system, most of the cases—rats, mice, rabbits or guinea pigs etc. are used in the laboratory. In case of animal model for diabetes, alloxan, streptozotocin (STZ) etc. are injected intraperitoneally (IP) or intravenously (IV) to make the animal as a diabetic subject. More than 400 species have been reported to display hypoglycemic effects, but only a few of them have been investigated [8]-[11]. More than 800 plant species are showing hypoglycaemic activity [12]. Among them
 Momordica charantia
(wild type) and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s leaf are commonly found in Bangladesh and shows hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities more potently than
 Momordica charantia
(hybrid type) and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s roots [13] [14].  There has been increasing demand for the use of plant products with antidiabetic activity due to their low cost, easy availability and lesser side effects. The aim of this comparative study is to compare the chronic effective-ness of wild type of
 Momordica charantia
(so called tropical vine) and leaf of
Coccinia cordifolia
(so called ag-gressive vine) on glycemic, lipidemic, insulinemic status in type 2 diabetic model rats.
2. Research Design and Methods
2.1. Study Site and Desing
The wild type
 M. charantia
fruits and
Coccinia cordifolia
’s leaves were collected from Raer bazaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. These were identified by Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka. The study was conducted in the Animal Research Section, Institute of Food Science & Technology (IFST) at Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh. From the sample collection to comparative study the ex-periment was as follow (
).
2.2. Preparation of Experimental Sample
The leaves of
Coccinia cordifolia
and wild type of
 M. charantia
fruits were washed and cut into small pieces and then dried using oven at 37
˚C
 temperature. The dried samples were grinded to make powder after that screened to get fine powder.
2.3. Preparation Model Animals, Dose and Route of Administration
Total 56 fasted healthy female rats (Long-Evans) of local strain (body weight 140 gm to 190 gm) were made diabetic by injecting alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally (150-mg/Kg-body weight) which destroys the
 ß
 cells of pancreas and produces diabetes mellitus. Three days after injection 51 rats were found survived. Then their
 
D. Islam
et al.
 117
Figure 1.
Flow chart of study.
fasting blood glucose level was measured and selects 48 as diabetic (blood glucose levels = 6 mmol/L) to con-vey the study. To observe the hypoglycemic activity the prepared samples (powder of
Coccinia cordifolia
leaves and wild type of
 M. charantia
fruits) were administered orally at a dose of daily 70 g/kg (70%), 50 gm/kg (50%) and 30 gm/kg (30%) body weight for 21 days.
2.4. Grouping of Rats
The experimental rats were kept under observation for a week and maintained at aconstant room temperature of 25
˚C
 
± 5˚C with humidity of 40
% to 70% with natural 12 h day-night cycle. Total 48 rats were divided into 08 (eight) groups (six rats per group) as follow: 1) Group-A: fed normal diet. 2) Group-B: fed with glibenclamide plus normal diet. 3) Group-C: fed powder of
 M. charantia
fruits 30% plus 70% normal rat diet. 4) Group-D: fed powder of
 M. charantia
fruits 50% plus 50% normal rat diet. 5) Group-E: fed powder of
 M. charantia
fruits 70% plus 30% normal rat diet. 6) Group-F: fed powder of
C. cordifolia
leaf 30% plus 70% normal rat diet. 7) Group-G: fed powder of
C. cordifolia
leaf 50% plus 50% normal rat diet. 8) Group-H: fed powder of
C. cordifolia
leaf 70% plus 30% normal rat diet.
2.5. Measurement of Biochemical Parameters
Biochemical parameters were measured by collecting fasting blood samples by amputation of the tail tip (about 0.2 ml blood collected) under diethyl ether anesthesia. Just before cutting the tail was immersed into warm water (400C) for approximately 22 seconds for vasodilatation. The level of blood glucose was determined 3rd (initial), 8th, 15th and 22nd day sample. At the final day (on 22nd) day blood sample was collected by sacrificing the rats. Blood glucose level of rat was measured by glucometer (OneTouch Ultra).Serum total cholesterol by enzymatic- colorimetric (Cholesterol Oxidase/Peroxidase, CHOD-PAP) method (Randox Laboratories Ltd., UK) using au-toanalyzer (AutoLab). Serum HDL-cholesterol by enzymatic colorimetric (Cholesterol CHOD-PAP) method (Randox Laboratories Ltd., UK) using micro-plate reader (Bio-Tek, USA). Serum triglyceride (TG) by enzy-matic colorimetric (GPO-PAP) method (Randox Laboratories Ltd., UK) using auto analyzer (Auto Lab). Serum LDL cholesterol was calculated by manually. The calculated formula was:
 
D. Islam
et al.
 118
TGLDL-C=TC- +HDL5
 Serum insulin by Rat Insulin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method (Crystal Chem Inc., USA). Liver glycogen levels were estimated by Anthrone-sulphuric acid method.
2.6. Statistical Analysis
Experimental data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) software for windows version 14 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The results were expressed as mean (±SD) and to compare the differences between different variables. Error bars were calculated by using standard deviations. Independent Student’s t-test and ANOVA (analysis of variance) followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were performed for Statistical analysis of the results. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
3. Results
3.1. Effect of
M. charantia
 Fruits (Wild Type) and
C. cordifolia
’s Leaf Powder on Body Weight of Model Rats
Body weight of each rat was taken at seven days interval. It is evident from the 
 that at 8th day body weights were decreased from group-B to group-H but in group-A there was a consistent tendency to increase in body weight. At the end of study period we found that 50% of
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) powder have showed more considerable rise (5.66% rise in case of
 M. charantia
and 2.76% in case of
C. cordifolia
) in body weight than 50% of
C. cordifolia
’s leaf powder.
 
3.2. Effect of
M. charantia
 Fruits (Wild Type) and
C. cordifolia
’s Leaf Powder on Blood Glucose level (BGL) of Model Rats
The chronic effects of
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) and
C. cordifolia
’s leaf powder on fasting glucose levels of type 2 diabetic model rats has been presented in 
. At the initial day fasting blood glucose levels were comparatively higher indicating the presence of functioning ß cells. But after 21 days (on 22nd day) of chronic feeding,
Coccinia cordifolia
powder (leaf ) had significant effect (p < 0.05) on lowering of fasting glucose levels of type 2 diabetic rats. The standard drug glibenclamide, which served as positive control, also showed signifi-cant (p < 0.05) hypoglycemic effect. A gradual decrease in blood glucose level (at all study day) was observed from initial to 22nd day. The decreased percentage was higher in 50% of both leaf & fruit but
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) showed more decrease (58.39%) in blood glucose level than
C. cordifolia
’s leaf (47.19%).
3.3. Comparison of Total Cholesterol (CH) & Triglyceride (TG) Levels of Model Rats after
M. charantia
 Fruits (Wild Type) and
C. cordifolia
’s Leaf Powder Administration
Total Cholesterol (TC) and TG level were decreased from initial to 22nd day among all the groups. The data-from 
shows that after 21 days (on 22nd day), the decreasing tendency of TC levels were by 5.25%, 12.33% & 5.87% respectively for 70%, 50% & 30% of
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) and7.38%, 11.24% & 9.33% respectively for 70%, 50% & 30% of
C. cordifolia
’s leaf and 15.10% decreased was found in glibencla-mide treated groups. After 21 days (on 22nd day), decreasing tendency of TG levels (from
) were 6.91%, 25.39% & 9.59% and 8.00%, 23.80%, 9.52% in respect of 70%, 50% & 30% of
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) and
C. cordifolia
’s leaf respectively and 18.05% decreased was found in glibenclamide treated groups. So 50% powder of
 M. charantia
fruits (wild type) was found more potent than
C. cordifolia
’s leaf to decrease TC and TG level of diabetic rats.
3.4. Comparison of the Effect of
M. charantia
 Fruits (Wild Type) and
C. cordifolia
’s Leaf Powder on Lipidemic Status (LDL and HDL) of Model Rats
The effect of
 M. charantia
(wild type) and
C. cordifolia
’s leaf on atherogenic lipids (LDL-Cholesterol) is de-picted in 
. It seems that, there were significant changes in case of LDL-cholesterol level among all the test groups after 21 days of chronic experiment. The standard drug control group had pronounced 35.03%
of 10