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Electricity Generation by the use of Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell: Comparative study of the Voltage Generated by Bread Factory Substrate and Waste Water from Poultry Farm

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Microbial fuel cell ( MFC ) represents a new method for electricity generation and waste water treatment. Microbial fuel cells are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from wide range organic substrates. This
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  [Shrivastava ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // www.ijesrt.com (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [766-770]   IJESRT   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY Electricity Generation by the use of Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell: Comparative study of the Voltage Generated by Bread Factory Substrate and Waste Water from Poultry Farm Shikhi Shrivastava *1 , Dr. Hemlata Bundela 2   *1 M.Tech Scholar, Energy Technology, Takshshila Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jabalpur, M P, India 2 Assistant Professor Engineering Chemistry, Department of Humanity and Sciences, Takshshila Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jabalpur, M P, India shikhi.shrivastava@gmail.com  Abstract   Microbial fuel cell ( MFC ) represents a new method for electricity generation and waste water treatment. Microbial fuel cells are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from wide range organic substrates. This research explores the application of Double chamber MFC in generating electricity using different waste water from Jabalpur. In order to obtain the aim of this research, a system of MFC with microbes has been used. Based on the result of different substrates, it can be reported that the maximum voltage generated among all the four substrates is 396mV at day five by slurry. Keywords : Double chamber MFC, Electrodes, Micro-organisms, Salt Bridge. Introduction Recent rise in energy costs, rapidly dwindling crude oil supplies and concern over the negative effects of carbon emissions have reignited both public and private interest in finding cheap alternative renewable energy sources. Many “green” energy generating process rely on the metabolic activity of microbes to turn human waste products into usable energy. MFC is considered to be a promising sustainable technology to meet increasing energy needs, especially using wastewaters as substrates, which can generate electricity and accomplish wastewater treatment simultaneously, thus may offset the operational costs of wastewater treatment plant [1]. MFC can be best defined as a fuel cell where microbes act as catalyst in degrading the organic content to produce electricity. It is a device that straight away converts microbial metabolic or enzyme catalytic energy into electricity by using usual electrochemical technology [2]. Various types of the microbial fuel cell exists, differing majorly on the source of substrates, microbes used and mechanism of electron transfer to the anode. Based on mechanism of electron transfer to the anode, there are two types of microbial fuel cell which are the mediator microbial fuel cell and the mediator-less microbial fuel cell. Mediator-microbial fuel cells are microbial fuel cells which use a mediator to transfer electrons produced from the microbial metabolism of small chain carbohydrates to the anode [3]. This is necessary because most bacteria cannot transfer electrons directly to the anode [4]. Mediators like thionine, methyl blue, methyl viologen and humic acid tap into the electron transport chain and abstract electrons (becoming reduced in the process) and carry these electrons through the lipid membrane and the outer cell membrane [5],[6]. Mediator-less microbial fuel cells, on the other hand, use special microbes which possess the ability to donate electrons to the anode provided oxygen (a stronger electrophilic agent) is absent [4],[7]. There are variants of the mediatorless microbial fuel cell which differ with respect to the sources of nutrient and type of inoculum used. In direct electron transfer, there are several microorganisms (Eg. Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter    sulferreducens, G. metallireducens and  Rhodoferax ferrireducens ) that transfer electrons from inside the cell to extracellular acceptors via c-type cytochromes, biofilms and highly conductive pili (nanowires) [8]. These microorganisms have high Coulombic efficiency and can form biofilms on the anode surface that act as electron acceptors and transfer electrons directly to the anode resulting in the production of more energy [9] [10]. In indirect electron transfer, electrons from microbial carriers are transported onto the electrode surface either by a microorganism’s ( Shewanella oneidensis, Geothrix  fermentans) own mediator which in turn facilitate  [Shrivastava ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // www.ijesrt.com (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [766-770]   extracellular electron transfer or by added mediators. The MFCs that use mediators as electron shuttles are called mediator MFCs. Mediators provide a platform for the microorganisms to generate electrochemically active reduced products. The reduced form of the mediator is cell permeable, accept electrons from the electron carrier and transfer them onto the electrode surface [11]. Usually neutral red, thionine, methylene blue, anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate, phenazines and iron chelates are added to the reactor as redox mediators [12]. Material and Method MFC construction The pictorial representation of the MFC has been shown in the following Figure 1.  Electrodes Carbon electrode was used at both the ends of cathode and anode and tightly fixed with the containers containing medium, culture and buffer. Cathodic chamber The cathode chamber of the MFC was made up of 2 liters plastic bottle filled with buffer solution.  Anodic Chamber The 2 liters sterilized plastic bottle is used for this purpose. The bottle is surface sterilized by washing with 70% ethyl alcohol and 1% HgCl 2  solution followed by UV exposure for 15 minutes. Then the medium was filled in it. Methylene blue, waste water sample and bacteria was added to it. Salt bridge The salt bridge was prepared by dissolving 3% agar in 1M KCl . The mixture was boiled for 2 minutes and casted in the PVC pipe. The salt bridge was properly sealed and kept in refrigerator for proper settling. Substrates There are different types of substrates has been used. In my study, first substrates is collected from Waste water of bread factory Jabalpur, second is the waste water from poultry farm Jabalpur, third substrates is drain water and fourth is slurry from Jabalpur has been used. It contains organic matter like starch, glucose, and sucrose which is used by bacteria for growth.  Mediator Methylene blue is a redox indicators act as electron shuttles that are reduced by microorganisms and oxidized by the MFC electrodes thereby transporting the electrons produced via biological metabolism to the electrodes in a fuel cell. Circuit Assembly Two chambers were internally connected by salt bridge and externally the circuit was connected with wires which were joined to the two electrodes at its two ends and to the multimeter by another two ends. The potential difference generated by the Fuel Cell was measured by using multimeter. Figure 1- Schematic diagram of MFC MFC Operation This research intends to utilize the waste water to generate electricity in Double chamber Microbial Fuel Cell system. The micro organisms are used as biocatalyst. The bacteria will convert sugar components in the waste water into Carbon dioxide, where in the intermediate process will be released electron generating electricity in MFC system. All the components of MFC are connected via salt bridge internally and externally with wires to the multimeter. The substrates (waste water) was added in the anodic chamber. The anodic chamber was completely sealed to maintain anaerobic condition. The voltage generation was recorded at daily basis for bacterial isolate in presence of mediator. The MFC set up was kept at static conditions. The value of voltage was recorded every day till 7 days. Results Voltage generation by use of Bread factory Substrate The voltage generation was recorded per day throughout the week for the substrate obtained from bread factory. There was a definite increase in the voltage till the day five and after that voltage decreases as shown in Table-1.1. The results reveal the fact that on day 5 the maximum potential that obtained was 356 mV, whereas it was 324mV on day 1. The maximum current measured was found 0.31 mA on day 5. Table-1.1: Maximum Voltage generated with Waste water from Bread factory.  [Shrivastava ,  3(2): February, 201   http: // www.ijesrt.com (C)  Inte Days Maximum v generated in 1 324 2 333 3 341 4 345 5 356 6 353 7 351 Graph-1.1: Graph representing voltage ge Waste water from Bread factory with resp days). Voltage generation by use of waste Poultry farm The voltage generation was rec throughout the week for the substrate poultry farm waste water. There was a d in the voltage till the day 5 and afte decreases, as shown in Table-1.2. The res fact that on day 5 the maximum potentia was 285mV, whereas it was 262mV o maximum current measured was found 0. 5. Table-1.2: Maximum Voltage generated wit from Poultry farm. Days Maximum generated 1 262 273 27 324 333 341 345 35601002003004001 2 3 4 5    V   o    l   t   a   g   e    (   m   V    ) Days ] ISS Impact  national Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research [766-770]   ltage (mV) nerated with ct to time (in water from rded per day obtained from finite increase r that voltage ults reveal the that obtained n day 1. The 29 mA on day h Waste water voltage in (mV) 4   5 6 7 Graph -1.2: Graph representing Waste water from Poultry farm w (in days). Voltage generation by use of D The voltage generation throughout the week for the s domestic drain water. There was voltage till the day 4 and after th shown in Table-1.3. The results day 4 the maximum potential th whereas it was 152mV on day 1 measured was found 0.20 mA on Table-1.3: Maximum Voltage gen Days g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 353 3516 7262 270 273 270501001502002503001 2 3 4    V   o    l   t   a   g   e    (   m   V    ) Day N: 2277-9655 Factor: 1.852  Technology 278 285 281 279 voltage generated with aste with respect to time mestic Drain water was recorded per day ubstrate obtained from definite increase in the at voltage decreases, as reveal the fact that on t obtained was 177mV, . The maximum current day 4. rated with Drain water. aximum voltage nerated in (mV)   152 158 166 177 174 171 168 285 281 2795 6 7  [Shrivastava ,  3(2): February, 201   http: // www.ijesrt.com (C)  Inte Graph-1.3: Graph representing voltage ge Drain water with respect to time (in Voltage generation by the use of Slurry The voltage generation was rec throughout the week for the substrate o was a definite increase in the voltage till after that voltage decreases, as shown in results reveal the fact that on day 5 potential that obtained was 396mV, w 360mV on day 1. The maximum current found 0.43 mA on day 5. Table-1.4: Maximum Voltage generated Days Maximu generated 1 362 363 374 385 396 387 37 Graph-1.4: Graph representing voltage ge slurry with respect to time (in da 152 158 166 177 1740501001502001 2 3 4 5    V   o    l   t   a   g   e    (   m   V    ) Days ] ISS Impact  national Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research [766-770]   nerated with days). rded per day slurry. There the day 5 and able-1.4. The the maximum hereas it was measured was ith Slurry. voltage in (mV)   0 8 7 9 6 3 4 nerated with ys). Discussion Microbial fuel cell is principle in which biochemical electrical energy. Consumption o glucose) by microorganism in ae CO 2  and H 2 O. C  H  O   6H  O6O  → 6C  If the terminal electron acceptor mediator then the electrons will which will get reduced and tran electrode at anodic chamber .H not present (anaerobic conditio dioxide, protons and electrons as C  H  O   6H  O → 6CO   2 ( Anode ) 24H   24e   6O   → 12 ( Cathode ) Based on the result, it was found 356mV ) at day five was gener bread factory, maximum voltage was generated by waste water of voltage ( 177mV ) at day four water and maximum voltage ( 3generated by slurry. The MFC and the voltage was recorded dai of mediator. The maximum volt the four substrates is 396 mV at by slurry.   Conclusions Microorganisms that ca of organic biomass to electron tr forward the self-sufficient syste convert waste organic matter an 171 1686 7360 368 377 380501001502002503003504004501 2 3 4    V   o    l   t   a   g   e    (   m   V    ) Day N: 2277-9655 Factor: 1.852  Technology based upon the basic nergy is converted into f organic substrate (e.g. robic condition produce O   12H  O  (1) oxygen is replaced by e trapped by mediator, port to electrons to the wever when oxygen is ) they produce carbon described below. 4H   24e   (2) H  O (3)   that maximum voltage ( ated by waste water of ( 285mV ) at day five poultry farm, maximum was generated by drain 6mV ) at day five was as run up to one week ly basis in the presence ge generated among all day five was generated combine the oxidation ansfer to electrodes put s that can successfully reusable biomass into   9 3963833745 6 7 s  [Shrivastava ,  3(2): February, 2014] ISSN: 2277-9655 Impact Factor: 1.852   http: // www.ijesrt.com (C)  International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology [766-770]   electricity. Oxidation of these newly rigid sources of organic carbon does not supply net carbon dioxide to the environment and unlike hydrogen fuel cells, there is no requirement for wide pre-handing out of the fuel or for costly catalysts. With the suitable optimization, microbial fuel cells might be able to power an extensive collection of broadly used procedure. Technology of Microbial Fuel Cell is one alternative of energy production using renewable resource.  References [1]    Rakesh Reddy N, Nirmal Raman K, Ajay Babu OK and Muralidharan A. Potential stage in wastewater treatment for generation of bioelectricity using MFC, Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial  Biotechnology 1 322- 326,2007. [2]    Allen R.M., Bennetto H.P. Microbial fuel cells: electricity production from carbohydrates. Appl  Biochem Biotechnol, 39-40:27-40,1993. [3]    Logan, B.E, Hamelers, P., Rozendal, R., Schroder, U., Keller, I., Freuguia, S., Alterman, P., Verstraete, W. and Rabaey, K. Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology.  Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40: 5181 – 5192,2006. [4]   Scholz, F., Mario, J., Chaudhuri, S.K. Bacterial  Batteries. Nature Biotechnology. Vol. 21(10) pp 1151-1152,2003. [5]    DiBucci, J. and Boland, T. Turning waste into wealth, the future of microbial fuel cells. Paper #1065, Conference Session #C5, Eleventh  Annual Conference, Swanson School of  Engineering, University of Pittsburgh,2011. [6]   Kim, J., Han, S., Oh, S. and Park, K. A Non-Pt Catalyst for Improved Oxygen Reduction  Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells. Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society. Vol. 14 (2): 71  – 76,2011. [7]    Mohan, V., Roghavalu, S., Srikanth, G. and Sarma, P. Bioelectricity production by mediatorless microbial fuel cells under acidophilic conditions using wastewater as substrate loading rate. Current Science. Vol. 92 (12) pp 1720 – 1726,2007. [8]    Derek,R L. The microbe electric: conversion of organic matter into electricity. Current opinion in Biotechnology 19,564-571,2008.   [9]   Chaudhuri, S.K., and Lovley, D.R. Electricity generation by direct oxidation of glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells. Nature biotechnology 21, 1229-1232,2003. [10]   Kim, H.J., Park, H.S., Hyun, M.S., Chang, I.S., Kim, M., and Kim, B.H. Amediator-less microbial fuel cell using a metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 30, 145-152,2002. [11]    Lovley, D.R. Bug juice: harvesting electricity with microorganisms. Nat Rev Micro 4, 497-508,2006. [12]    Du, Z., Li, H., and Gu, T. A state of the art review on microbial fuel cells: A Promising technology for wastewater treatment and bioenergy. Biotechnology Advances 25, 464-482,2007.
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