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The tocopherol contents of oils obtained from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik olive varieties harvested at different ripening periods were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Tocopherol was the major tocol detected in all the studied
  This article was downloaded by: [Balikesir University]On: 11 July 2012, At: 06:53Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Natural Product Research: FormerlyNatural Product Letters Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gnpl20 Determination of tocopherol contentsof some olive varieties harvested atdifferent ripening periods Ayhan Da ğ delen a  , Gülendam Tümen b  , Mehmet Musa Özcan c  &Ekrem Dündar ba  Vocational High School, Food Technology, Bal ı kesir University,Band ı rma-Bal ı kesir, Turkey b  Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Literature,Bal ı kesir University, 10145 Cagis-Bal ı kesir, Turkey c  Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture,University of Selcuk, 42031 Konya, TurkeyVersion of record first published: 23 Aug 2011 To cite this article:  Ayhan Da ğ delen, Gülendam Tümen, Mehmet Musa Özcan & Ekrem Dündar(2012): Determination of tocopherol contents of some olive varieties harvested at differentripening periods, Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters, 26:15, 1454-1457 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.605364 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsThis article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representationthat the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of anyinstructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primarysources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,  demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  a   l   i   k  e  s   i  r   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   6  :   5   3   1   1   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2  Natural Product Research Vol. 26, No. 15, August 2012, 1454–1457 SHORT COMMUNICATIONDetermination of tocopherol contents of some olive varieties harvestedat different ripening periods Ayhan Dag ˘delen a , Gu ¨lendam Tu ¨men b , Mehmet Musa O ¨ zcan c * and Ekrem Du ¨ndar b a Vocational High School, Food Technology, Bal  { kesir University, Band  { rma-Bal  { kesir, Turkey; b Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Literature, Bal  { kesir University, 10145 Cagis-Bal  { kesir, Turkey;  c Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk,42031 Konya, Turkey ( Received 31 December 2010; final version received 15 May 2011 )The tocopherol contents of oils obtained from Ayval | k, Domat and Gemlik olivevarieties harvested at different ripening periods were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography.   -Tocopherol was the major tocol detectedin all the studied olive oil samples. The oils extracted from olive fruits composedof 130.54–180.43mgkg  –1  -tocopherol, 0.73–1.61mgkg  –1  -tocopherol and0.53–2.28mgkg  –1   -tocopherol for Ayval | k oil. The   -,   - and    -tocopherolcontents of Domat oil are in the ranges 95.60–125.56, 0.71–2.70 and 0.49– 1.25mgkg  –1 at different harvesting periods. The   -,   - and    -tocopherol contentsof Gemlik olive oil are in the ranges 112.59–168.19, 0.94–1.21 and 0.85– 2.40mgkg  –1 , respectively. There were significant differences between the oils fromcultivars grown in different environments. Keywords:  olive oil; ripening; HPLC; tocopherols; varieties 1. Introduction Oils are generally obtained from the seed or fruit which occur in great abundance. Theyare extracted either by crushing or by solvent extraction using a suitable solvent (Bernedin,1976). The olive tree ( Oleo europaea  L.) is a subtropical species typical of theMediterranean basin where it represents the most important oil producing crop(Baccouri et al., 2008). Maturity is one of the most important factors associated withthe quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables (Beltran, Del Rio, Sanchez, & Martinez,2004; Bianchi, 2003; Matos et al., 2007). As ripening progresses, photosynthetic activity decreases (Criado, Motilva, Goni, & Romero, 2005), whereas the amount of oil increases(Nergiz & Engez, 2000). In addition, harvest timing can have a significant effect on oilquality (Issaoui et al., 2008). Olive oil quality is strongly dependent on the olive fruitphysiological conditions (Garcia, Seller, & Perz-Camino, 1996; Ranalli, Tombesi,Ferrante, & De Mattia, 1998). In fact, there are different cultivars of   O. europaea , eachone with specific physical and biochemical characteristics, providing fruit and oil withtypical composition. Vitamin E is a general term used to refer to a group of minor butimportant lipid-soluble compounds that are believed to be involved in a diversity of physiological and biochemical functions. The aim of this study was to focus on the changes *Corresponding author. Email: mozcan@selcuk.edu.tr ISSN 1478–6419 print/ISSN 1478–6427 online   2012 Taylor & Francishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.605364http://www.tandfonline.com    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  a   l   i   k  e  s   i  r   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   6  :   5   3   1   1   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2  of tocopherol contents during different maturations in some Turkish olive varieties(Ayval | k, Domat and Gemlik cvs). 2. Results and discussion The tocopherol contents and Duncan Multiplied Test results of olive oils obtained fromAyval | k, Domat and Gemlik varieties harvested at different ripening periods are given inTable 1. The oils extracted from olive fruits composed of 130.54–180.43mgkg  1  -tocopherol, 0.73–1.61mgkg  1  -tocopherol and 0.53–2.28mgkg  1   -tocopherol forAyval | k oil. In addition, the   -,   - and    -tocopherol contents of Domat oil are in theranges 95.60–125.56, 0.71–2.70 and 0.49–1.25mgkg  1 at different harvest periods. Also,the   -,   - and    -tocopherol contents of Gemlik olive oil are in the ranges 112.59–168.19,0.94–1.21 and 0.85–2.40mgkg  1 , respectively. As seen,   -tocopherol was established inAyval | k sample at the September, the lowest was determined in Domat oil sample at theNovember (Figure 1). The   - and    -tocopherol contents of all oil samples ranged between0.71 (Domat) and 2.70mgkg  1 (Gemlik), respectively. It was found significantly at the  p 5 0.001 levels among the   - and    -tocopherols for varieties, at the  p 5 0.05 levels amongthe   -tocopherol for varieties. The cultivars behaved differently along ripening. There weresignificant differences between the oils from cultivars when grown in the differentenvironments. Baccouri et al. (2008) determined the   -,   -,    - and   -tocopherol contents tobe in the ranges 170–590, 46.1–68.0, 58.1–98.3 and 25.5–34.1mgkg  1 in virgin olive oilsfrom some selected wild olives. These results explain the small contribution of tocopherolto the stability of the studied virgin olive oils. The olive’s composition in several cultivarsand correlations of the levels of several elements with some quality parameters in olive hasbeen studied (Jardao & Lietao, 1990; Nergiz & Engez, 2000). Issaoui et al. (2008) established   -tocopherol content to be in the range 97.68–201.40mgkg  1 in some Tunisianvirgin olive oils. The experimental investigation carried out by Sakouhi et al. (2008) onTunisian olive fruits of Meski, Sayali and Picholine cv at black stage were established as74.6, 123.7 and 113.1mgkg  1 , respectively. Aguilera et al. (2005) reported that virgin oilsof Frantoio and Leccino cultivars from two locations in Andalusia contained   -,   -and   -tocopherols in the ranges 148–306, 1.67–12.3 and 0.75–12.3mgkg  1 . Andjelkovic, Acun,Van Hoed, Verhe, and Van Camp (2009) evaluated   -tocopherol contents of extra virgin Table 1. The tocopherol contents and Duncan Multiplied Test results of olive oils obtained fromAyval | k, Domat and Gemlik varieties harvested at the different ripening periods ( n :3). Varieties Harvest periods   -Tocopherol   -Tocopherol    -TocopherolAyval | k August 180.23  6.83a 0.73  0.24c 2.28  0.18abSeptember 180.43  15.17a 1.25  0.09bc 1.59  0.29dOctober 161.03  3.32ab 1.61  0.03b 0.73  0.01ghNovember 146.66  15.37bcd 1.04  0.04bc 0.78  0.06ghDecember 130.54  2.46cde 1.23  0.28bc 0.53  0.03hDomat August 98.71  19.56fg 2.25  0.67a 1.25  0.12eSeptember 106.80  18.27efg 2.70  0.41a 0.52  0.09hOctober 119.69  2.27d–g 1.24  0.10bc 0.71  0.09ghNovember 125.56  3.77c–f 0.96  0.23bc 0.78  0.07ghDecember 95.60  8.57g 0.71  0.08c 0.49  0.02hGemlik August 161.97  1.50ab 0.94  0.09bc 0.85  0.03fgSeptember 112.59  9.49efg 1.16  0.16bc 1.12  0.08ef October 128.81  23.06cde 1.18  0.34bc 1.88  0.17cNovember 151.37  4.14bc 1.08  0.04bc 2.40  0.08aDecember 168.19  2.36ab 1.21  0.17bc 2.10  0.21bc Note: Values followed by different letters within each column are significant at 5% level. Natural Product Research  1455    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  a   l   i   k  e  s   i  r   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   6  :   5   3   1   1   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2  olive oil, organic extra virgin olive, virgin olive oil, ordinary virgin olive and refined oliveoil for 2005 and 2006 processing years.   -Tocopherol contents were determined between87.8 and 162.9mgkg  1 for two crop seasons. Olive trees have been grown along theAegean coast of Turkey for over 8000 years. This has had an impact on a wide range of olive growing regions and olive fruit cultivars in Turkey today (Andjelkovic et al., 2009).Lopez Ortiz, Prats Moya, and Berenguer Navarro (2006) reported that differentolive cultivar oils contained   -,    - and   -tocopherols in the ranges 14.8–21.8, 0.52–3.5and 0.19–0.95mg100g  1 . Among all tocopherol homologues,   -tocopherol presents thehighest biological potency (Lopez Ortiz et al., 2006). Gimeno, Castellote, Lamuela-Raventos, De la Torre, and Lopez-Sabater (2002) researched the effects of extractionmethods on   -tocopherol of green and ripe olive oil.   -Tocopherol contents were foundbetween 212.46–185.55 and 200.82–195.09mgkg  1 at the two- and three-phase decanterextraction systems. These results are in agreement with the previous studies, suggestingthat tocopherol content was highly variety dependent (Baldioli, Servili, Perretti, &Montedero, 1996). Virgin olive oil composition depends on a number of factors such as theinteraction between the cultivar and the environment, cultivation techniques, fruit ripenessand oil extraction system (Abaza, Daoud, Msallem, & Zarrouk, 2001; Baccouri et al.,2007; Ben Temime et al., 2006). Also, the genetic factor related to the cultivar is one of themost important aspects of the chemical composition of olive oil. 3. Conclusions  -Tocopherol was the major tocol detected in all the studied olive oil samples.  -Tocopherol contents of Ayval | k olive oil were found high compared with the resultsof Domat and Gemlik (except for November and December harvest periods) olive oils.  -Tocopherol contents of Ayval | k and Domat olive oils in December period were foundthe lowest levels (Table 1).   - and    -Tocopherol contents of oils were found at the lowlevels in all harvest periods. Tocopherols are particularly important functional compo-nents in foods. They have vitamin E properties and display antioxidant activity, whichprotect the body tissues against the damaging effects caused by the free radicals that result 0.0020.0040.0060.0080.00100.00120.00140.00160.00180.00200.00August September October November DecemberHarvest Periods      a    -       T     o     c     o     p       h     e     r     o       l AyvalikDomatGemlik Figure 1. The tocopherol rates at the ripening periods of olive oils obtained from Ayval | k, Domatand Gemlik varieties. 1456  A. Dag˘delen  et al.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   B  a   l   i   k  e  s   i  r   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   ]  a   t   0   6  :   5   3   1   1   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2
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