Internet & Technology

9 pages
5 views

Capsaicinoids, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds in olive oil flavored with dried chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201300158

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 9
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
Capsaicinoids, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds in olive oil flavored with dried chili pepper (Capsicum annuum). DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201300158
Transcript
  Research Article Capsaicinoids, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds inolive oil  󿬂 avored with dried chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum  ) Nicola Caporaso, Antonello Paduano, Giovanna Nicoletti and Raffaele Sacchi Department ofAgriculture, Food Science and Technology Unit,University of Naples Federico II, Portici, NA,Italy Spices and herbs are traditionally added to olive oil in Mediterranean gastronomy to enhance its aromaandtaste. Thispaperaimsto characterizeoliveoil aromatized byaddition of dried chili pepper( Capsicumannum ) (DCP) at different concentrations (10% and 20% by weight) up to 30 days of infusion.Capsaicinoids quanti 󿬁 cation by HPLC ‐ DAD, volatile compounds analysis by SPME ‐ GC  –  MS andantioxidant activity by ABTS method were performed on chili pepper  󿬂 avored olive oil (CPOO) incomparison to whole olive oil. At day 7 of infusion, the maximum capsaicinoids content was reached forboth the concentrations used and no signi 󿬁 cant increase was observed for longer infusion times.The volatile headspace composition of CPOOs was in 󿬂 uenced by the concentration of DCP added.The addition of DCP caused a signi 󿬁 cant increase in hexanal, related to oxidation processes.2 ‐ Methylbutanal, 3 ‐ methylbutanal and 6 ‐ methyl ‐ 5 ‐ hepten ‐ 2 ‐ one were also detected in CPOO andderived from chili as degradation products of the drying process. DCP infusion signi 󿬁 cantly enrichedolive oil with antioxidant compounds and also modi 󿬁 ed its volatile pro 󿬁 le. Capsaicinoids and aromacompounds were rapidly released within the  󿬁 rst week of chili infusion in CPOOs, thus suggestingreducing infusion time by optimizing DCP concentration in order to improve CPOO quality and shelf life. Practical applications:  The present research is relevant at industrial level for the optimization of oliveoil  󿬂 avoring and the aromatization process. In particular, we de 󿬁 ned that the common infusion times of chili, used at industry production for  󿬂 avoring olive oil, is longer than needed and we suggest reducinginfusion time thus also avoiding problems of free acidity and PV increase. Also, we highlighted theimportanceofqualitycontrolforthechilipepperdryingprocedureandstoragetimebeforeuse,duetothepossible formation of off  ‐ 󿬂 avors in the  󿬁 nal product. Moreover, in the present paper a quanti 󿬁 cationmethod of the pungent molecules capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin directly from  󿬂 avored olive oil wasapplied. This method could be applied instead of empirical techniques such as Scoville units, for thede 󿬁 nition and standardization of the capsaicinoids content in  󿬂 avored oils and their pungency levels. Keywords:  Antioxidant activity / Capsaicin / Chili pepper flavored oils / HPLC / Olive oil aroma / SPME ‐ GC/MS Received: April 30, 2013 / Revised: August 12, 2013 / Accepted: September 25, 2013DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201300158 1 Introduction 1.1 Chili pepper aromatized olive oil (CPOO) Addition of different spices and herbs to olive oil and virginoliveoilisatraditionalpracticeinMediterraneangastronomy to enhance aroma and taste of foods. For these preparations,so ‐ called  “ gourmet oils, ”  different herbs and spices are used,such as oregano, garlic, basil, and chili pepper ( Capsicumannuum  L.) [1]. Hot chili pepper belongs to the Solanaceaefamily and is one of the most popular spices in the world,which is appreciated for its sensory attributes of color, Correspondence:  Department of Agriculture, Food Science and Tech-nology Unit, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, ParcoGussone Ed. 84, 80055 Portici, NA, Italy E ‐ mail:  sacchi@unina.it Fax:  þ 39 081 7762580 Abbreviations: ABTS,  2,2 0 ‐ azino ‐ bis(3 ‐ ethylbenzothiazoline ‐ 6 ‐ sulphonicacid); CPOO, chilipepper  󿬂 avoredoliveoil; DCP, driedchilipepper; DPPH, di(phenyl) ‐ (2,4,6 ‐ trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium;  EVOO,  extra virgin olive oil; PV,  peroxide value;  SHU,  Scoville heats units;  SPME,  solid phasemicroextractionEur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013,  115  , 0000 – 0000 1   2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.ejlst.com  pungency, and aroma. Chili fruits have many uses in culinary preparations making it one of the most important vegetablesused in many preparations in the food industry as a coloringand  󿬂 avoring agent in sauces, soups, processed meats, snacksand soft drinks [2, 3]. Different methods are used in theproduction of chili pepper  󿬂 avored olive oil (CPOO) and thechoice is very important as the chili extraction method affectsboth the acceptability and the oxidation stability of the 󿬂 avored vegetable oils [4]. Infusion is the traditional methodof   󿬂 avoring oils. The plant material is typically ground andmixed with vegetable oil and the mixture is left at RT withperiodicagitation.Thetimeneededforthisprocessvariesandcouldtakeuptoweeksormonths.Themixtureisthen 󿬁 lteredtoremovethesolidsandtheproductisreadyforconsumptionor for dilution with an un 󿬂 avored oil batch to reach therequired sensory characteristics and  󿬂 avor intensity in the 󿬁 nal products [4]. 1.2 Capsaicinoids and chili pepper antioxidants The hot and spicy taste of chili pepper is due to the class of compounds called capsaicinoids, arising from the secondary metabolism of the alkaloid groups, containing vanillylamidemoieties with C9  –  C11 branched ‐ chain fatty acids. Inparticular, the pungency is given by the lateral hydrocarbonchain that strongly binds lipoproteins taste receptors.Capsaicin ( E  ‐  N  ‐ 4 ‐ hydroxy  ‐ 3 ‐ methoxybenzyl ‐ 8 ‐ methyl ‐ 6 ‐ nonenamide) and dihydrocapsaicin (6,7 ‐ dihydro derivativeof capsaicin) are the most abundant capsaicinoids of chilipeppers,representingabout90%ofthetotalcapsaicinoids[5].Chili pepper has high antioxidant capacity and itrepresents an excellent source of vitamin A, C, E, andcarotenoids [6]. Chili pepper also contains a considerableamountof  󿬂 avonoids suchasquercetin andluteolin[7] andithasbeendemonstrated toreducetheincidence of thrombosisand to decrease the level of glucose in plasma [8].Capsaicinoids are found to exert multiple pharmacologicaland physiological effects, including the activities of analgesia,anticancer, anti ‐ in 󿬂 ammation, antioxidant, and anti ‐ obesi-ty [9]. Capsaicinoids are also able to prevent lipid oxidationwhen they are added in vegetable oils and during thermaltreatments [10]. In particular, chili pepper pericarp andplacenta exhibit the strongest ferrous chelating activity andscavenging activity against free radicals, measured by bothDPPH and ABTS assays [7].The concentration of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin inchiliisgreatlyin 󿬂 uencedbythecultivars[11].Thecapsaicinoidcontentandindirectlyitspungency,however,isalsoaffectedby variables such as agronomic practices, water stress, tempera-ture, plant nutrition, and exposure to light [12, 13]. 1.3 Aims of the research Although the changes of CPOOs during storage have beenstudied by Baiano et al. [4], no published information hasbeen found about the characterization of capsaicinoids andvolatile compounds in CPOO. Thus, the aims of the presentwork were: (i) to set up an extraction method forcapsaicinoids quanti 󿬁 cation by HPLC in CPOOs; (ii) toanalyze the volatile compounds of CPOOs by SPME ‐ GC  –  MS; (iii) to evaluate the overall quality indices, capsaicinoidsandantioxidantactivityinCPOOsusingdifferentchilipepperconcentrations and infusion times. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Standards and reagents All chemicals used were of HPLC grade and were purchasedfrom Sigma  –  Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). The followingchemical compounds were used as standards: naturalcapsaicin (capsaicin 65% and dihydrocapsaicin 35%), 2 ‐ methylbutanal (95%), 3 ‐ methylbutanal (97%), pentanal(97%), hexanal (95%), heptanal (95%), ( E  ) ‐ 2 ‐ hexenal(98%), octanal (99%), ( E  ) ‐ 2 ‐ heptenal (98%), nonanal(95%), heptane (99%), octane (99%), 6 ‐ methyl ‐ 5 ‐ hepten ‐ 2 ‐ one (98%), limonene (97%), eucalyptol (99%), 1 ‐ butanol(99%), 3 ‐ pentenol (98%), 3 ‐ methylbutanol (99%), 4 ‐ methylpentanol (97%), (  Z  ) ‐ 2 ‐ pentenol (98%), hexanol (99%), (  Z  ) ‐ 3 ‐ hexenol (95%), ( E  ) ‐ 2 ‐ hexenol (98%), 1 ‐ octen ‐ 3 ‐ ol (98%),heptanol (98%), isobutyl acetate (99%), alfa ‐ pinene (98%),Trolox, and ABTS þ (2,2 0 ‐ azino ‐ bis(3 ‐ ethylbenzothiazoline ‐ 6 ‐ sulphonic) acid). 2.2 Samples A commercial olive oil (mixture of virgin olive oil and re 󿬁 nedolive oil) kindly supplied by the Mataluni Oil Company (Montesarchio,Benevento,Italy)wasusedfortheexperiments.Ground dried red hot chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) waspurchasedatalocalmarketinCampaniaregion(Italy).CPOOswere prepared by using dried chili pepper (DCP) at twodifferent concentrations (10% and 20% by weight). For eachconcentration, nine bottles (100mL each) were prepared,stored in the dark at RT (20  2°C) and shaken daily. Sampleswere taken in triplicate at 7, 15, and 30 days of infusion. OliveoilwasthencentrifugedtoseparatethesolidpartsofDCP,andall analytical determinations were carried out on the oil phase. 2.3 Capsaicinoid extraction from dried chili pepperand from CPOO For the capsaicinoid extraction from DCPs, the methodreported by Maillard et al. [14] was used, with somemodi 󿬁 cations. Ten milliliters of methanol was added to 0.5gdried chili peppers. The suspension was shaken for 2min andsubsequently centrifuged for 10min at 3000rpm at RT usinga PK 120 centrifuge (ALC International, Milan, Italy). Theextraction was repeated 10 times on the solid residue. 2 N. Caporaso  et al  . Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013,  115  , 0000 – 0000   2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.ejlst.com  Themethanolphasewas 󿬁 ltered,recoveredandevaporatedina vacuum funnel  󿬂 ask at 40°C. The residue was dissolved in3mL methanol and analyzed by HPLC. 2.4 Chemical determinations2.4.1 Quality indices Determination of free acidity, peroxide value (PV) andspectrophotometricindices(  K  232 ,  K  270 , D  K  )werecarriedouton CPOO samples according to the methods reported by theEC Regulation 2568/91 for olive oil [15]. 2.4.2 Extraction and HPLC quanti 󿬁 cation ofcapsaicinoids The procedure for capsaicinoid extraction in CPOOs wasapplied as reported by Vázquez ‐ Roncero [16] for olive oil,slightly modi 󿬁 ed by using a methanol  –  water mixture assolventinsteadofpetroleumetherandmethanol  –  water.Oliveoilsample(10g)wasdissolvedin10mLhexaneandextractedin a separating funnel using a mixture of methanol:water(60:40 by volume). The hydro ‐ alcoholic extract was washedwith hexane and centrifuged for 10min at 2500rpm. Themethanol phase was collected and evaporated in a vacuum 󿬂 ask using a rotary evaporator Mod. Laborota 4000 ef  󿬁 cient(Heidolph instruments, Milan, Italy) at 40°C. The residuewas dissolved in 2mL methanol and analyzed by HPLC.For the HPLC analysis, a method previously reported by Foglianoetal.[17]wasfollowed.Analysiswasperformedusingan HPLC Shimadzu mod. LC ‐ 10ADVP equipped with a UV   –  Vis Diode Array (Shimadzu Italia, Milan, Italy), using areversed phase column Synergy 4u Fusion ‐ RP 80A  150mm  4.6mm (Phenomenex, Castel Maggiore, BO, Italy). Theacquisition software was Class ‐ VP Chromatography datasystem vers. 4.6 (Shimadzu Italia). Eluent A was water:tri 󿬂 uoroacetic acid (TFA) 97:3 by volume, eluent B wasmethanol:isopropanol 25:63.4 by volume with 1.6% acetoni-trile.Theelutiongradientstartedfrom20%ofeluentBandwas98% of eluent B after 18min. Flow rate was 0.7mL/min andthe injected volume was 20 m L. Capsaicin (65% capsaicin and35% dihydrocapsaicin, Sigma  –  Aldrich) was used as externalstandard for the calibration curve ( R 2 ¼ 0.998). Identi 󿬁 cationof capsaicinoids in oil extracts was performed by comparingretention times and UV spectra of the pure compounds.Chromatogramswererecordedatawavelengthof279nm.Thelimit of detection (LOD) and of quanti 󿬁 cation (LOQ) weredetermined from the SD of the response, using the followingequations: LOD ¼ 3.3  s  /  S  ; LOQ ¼ 10  s  /  S  ; where  s  ¼ SDof the response,  S  ¼ slope of the calibration curve. 2.4.3 SPME ‐ GC –  MS analysis of volatile compounds Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME ‐ GC/MS. ADVB ‐ Carboxen ‐ PDMS 50/30 m m  󿬁 ber was chosen forsampling (Supelco, Bellofonte, USA). This  󿬁 ber was usedas it was reported to be the most ef  󿬁 cient for chili volatilesextraction [18], and widely applied to olive oil analysis [19].Pure (99.8%) isobutyl acetate (Sigma  –  Aldrich) was added tothe samples as an internal standard (3 m L of a 2000ppmsolution in re 󿬁 ned olive oil) to obtain a  󿬁 nal concentration of 2000ppbofstandard.Oilsamples(3mL)wereputina15mL vial and kept on a magnetic stirrer for 10min at 40°C for theequilibration phase. After 30min  󿬁 ber exposure, the sampleswere analyzed by GC [19]. For chili pepper powder analysis,an aliquot (0.2g) was stirred in a 15mL vial for 10min forequilibration and  󿬁 nally   󿬁 ber was exposed for 5min. A GC  –  MS Shimadzu mod. QP5050A (Shimadzu, Milan, Italy) wasequipped with a fused silica capillary column SupelcowaxTM10, 60m length, 0.32mm of internal diameter, and0.50 m m  󿬁 lm thickness of propylene glycol (Supelco). MSused an electron impact source of 70eV. Source temperaturewas 200°C and the interface temperature was 250°C. Thescanning program ranged from 30 to 250m/z and scanningtime was 0.4s. The column temperature was set at 40°C for4min, then the temperature increased at a rate of 2.5°C/minuntil 240°C which was held for 3min. The injectortemperature was 230°C; carrier gas: helium; column  󿬂 ow:1.4mL/min; split ratio: 1:20.The acquisition software used for the analysis was GC  –  MS Solution vers. 1.2 (Shimadzu Italia). Identi 󿬁 cation wasperformed by comparing retention times and mass spectra of each compound with those of pure standards under the sameconditions, when available. For the other compounds, atentative identi 󿬁 cation was given on the basis of the massspectraavailableinlibrariesoftheacquisitionsoftware(NIST27, NIST 147, SZTERP). 2.4.4 Antioxidant activity by ABTS þ method This method is based on the ability of antioxidants to reducethe 2,2 0 ‐ azino ‐ bis(3 ‐ ethylbenzothiazoline ‐ 6 ‐ sulphonic) acid(ABTS þ ) radical, a blue ‐ green chromophore that has itsmaximum absorbance at 734nm. The values obtained fromthe spectrophotometric analysis are compared with thosegiven by Trolox, an analogue of vitamin E that posseses anequivalent antioxidant activity of 1mM solution of theanalyte [20]. ABTS was dissolved in water to obtain aconcentration of 7mM, and the radical cation ABTS þ wasformed by reacting ABTS stock solution with 2.45mMpotassium persulfate. The mixture was stored in the dark atRT for 12  –  16h before use. The ABTS þ stock solution wasdilutedwithethanoltoobtainanabsorbanceof0.70  0.02at734nm at 25°C [20]. The calibration curve was preparedusing Trolox diluted in ethanol at concentrations of 18, 36,60, 90, and 120 m M. The analysis was carried out at exactly 2.5min after the addition of sample and absorbance was readat 734nm using a spectrophotometer mod. UV  ‐ 1601(Shimadzu Italia). For each dilution, the percentage of inhibition was calculated using the formula  A 734 % ¼ (1   A f  /  Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013,  115  , 0000 – 0000 Chili pepper flavored olive oil quality 3   2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.ejlst.com   A 0 )100, where  A 0  was the absorbance of blank sample and  A f  wasthe absorbanceat2.5min. Thepercentage inhibitionwasplotted as a function of concentration and the TEAC (TroloxEquivalent Antioxidant Capacity) was calculated from theratio of linear regression coef  󿬁 cient of the analyte and that of the Trolox. Results were expressed as  m mol Troloxequivalents [20]. 2.5 Statistical analysis Alltheanalyticaldeterminationswerecarriedoutintriplicate.CPOO samples in infusion tests were also taken in triplicatefor each sampling time (7, 15, 30 days). XLStat Version 6.1software (Addinsoft, Paris, France) was used to perform thetwo ‐ way ANOVA. The effect of both chili pepper concentra-tion and storage time were evaluated. The differences wereconsidered signi 󿬁 cant at  P  < 0.05. 3 Results and discussion 3.1 Capsaicinoid quanti 󿬁 cation and quality indices HPLC pro 󿬁 les of pure capsaicinoids (capsaicin 65%,dihydrocapsaicin 35%) used for the calibration curvecalculation ( a ) and gourmet olive oil added with 10% of chili for 30 days of infusion (  b ) are reported in Fig. 1. Thedetection limit for the described experimental conditionresulted to be 1ppm for capsaicin and 0.5ppm fordihydrocapsaicin. The quanti 󿬁 cation limit was 2ppm and1.4ppm for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively.The HPLC analysis allowed a rapid quantitative determi-nation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in CPOO. Theevaluation of capsaicin content, in relation to differentinfusion times and chili pepper concentrations, allowed tode 󿬁 ne the extraction kinetics of capsaicinoids in olive oil. Asreported in Fig. 2, during the  󿬁 rst 7 days of infusion, themaximum concentration of capsaicinoids was obtained. Nosigni 󿬁 cant differences were found at both concentrations of chili pepper from 7 to 30 days of infusion.As for the overall oil quality, the addition of chili pepperextracts determined an increase in acidity in CPOOs respectto the control olive oil (Table 1). Free acidity levelsigni 󿬁 cantly increased between the two chili pepper concen-trations used. The peroxide value (PV) increased duringstorage up to day 15, followed by a slight decrease. Nosigni 󿬁 cant differences for PV between chili pepper concen-trations were observed, except at day 30. The UV parameters  K  232  and  K  270  showed a similar trend, and a signi 󿬁 cantincrease in both indices was obtained for 20% gourmet oil.These results are in agreement with previous studies [21] onsun 󿬂 ower oil  󿬂 avored using chili pepper, in which theantioxidant activity of   Capsicum annum  extract reduced theauto ‐ oxidation rate. A slight increase in oxidation parametersof CPOO could be explained by the high relative amount of PUFA in chili peppers, according to literature data [22].Our results were in accordance with Gambacortaet al. [23] with the exception of the increase in acidity value.These authors reported a very slight increase of acidity (from0.35% to 0.5%) during a longer storage time (7 months), butno signi 󿬁 cant increase was observed for CPOO duringinfusion and the  󿬁 rst month storage. The increase in acidity value (from 0.2 to 1.6%) found in the present work could bepartially explained by the relative high amount of acetic acidreleased in CPOO from DCP during the infusion, thusresulting in an overestimation of the free acidity. The highamount of acetic acid detected by SPME ‐ GC/MS in chilipowder (Table 2) was released from this latter in the CPOOsduring infusion. Its abundance could be due to thefermentationofchilifruitsthattakesplaceduringdehydrationprocessing when it is carried out in mild and inappropriateconditions.Moreover,intheseconditionssomevolatilessuchas acetic acid could be biosynthesized by microorganismsthrough carbohydrate metabolism [24]. The results of thepresent study could be explained also by the higherconcentrations of chili pepper (100 and 200g/L) used forthe infusion with respect to previous works, where very low Fig. 1.  HPLC ‐ UV chromatograms of capsaicinoids used asstandard compounds ( a ) and those quanti 󿬁 ed in olive oil  󿬂 avoredbyadditionofdriedchilipepper(CPOO)( b ).Peaksidenti 󿬁 cation:(1)capsaicin, (2) dihydrocapsaicin. 4 N. Caporaso  et al  . Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013,  115  , 0000 – 0000   2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.ejlst.com  󿬁 nal concentrations (10, 20, and 40g/L) were reported [23].For the slight increase in oxidation parameters (PV,  K  232 ,  K  270 ), it has been considered that chili peppers andparticularly the seeds contain a signi 󿬁 cant amount of lipids,of which about 40g/kg are PUFA. These latters are highly exposed to lipid oxidation during the drying and storageprocess[22]anddifferentstorageordryingconditionsofchilipepper could lead to signi 󿬁 cant differences in terms of oxidation parameters. Another important factor is thepresence of trace metal in chili pepper, in particular copper(Cu) and iron (Fe). According to USDA food researchdatabase, the content of these pro ‐ oxidant metals in raw redchili pepper are 1.03 and 0.13mg/100g, respectively, with awater content equal to 88.0%. On a dry weight basis, theseconcentrations increase to 8.6 and 1.1mg/100g for Fe andCu, respectively [25]. Thus, a longer infusion time (many days or weeks) could promote the transfer of these metals inCPOOs and could probably accelerate the lipid oxidation. 3.2 Antioxidant activity The antioxidant activity of CPOOs greatly increased by theaddition of chili pepper and a trend similar to that observedfor capsaicinoids concentration was obtained (Fig. 2). Thehighest antioxidant activity was measured for olive oil with20% of added chili, but no signi 󿬁 cant differences wereobserved as effect of infusion time (Fig. 2c). The highestantioxidant activity was measured at day 7, and no statisticaldifferences were recorded during further infusion until day 30. The antioxidant activity was linearly correlated to thecapsaicinoid content released from chili pepper duringinfusion ( R 2 ¼ 0.920), even if other compounds could alsoaffect this parameter, such as carotenoids,  󿬂 avonoids, andbiophenols (quercetin, luteolin) [7, 26  –  27].The antioxidant capacity of dried  Capsicum  spp. has beenreported to be greatly dependent on carotenoids andcapsaicinoids content. It is also in 󿬂 uenced by the dryingprocess which implies a drastic reduction of the ability toscavenge the ABTS þ radical [27]. The initial amount of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the chili pepper powderused in our experiments was 2065 and 1092ppm, respec-tively. Pungency grade of capsaicinoids, expressed as ScovilleHeats Units (SHU), resulted about 50820, which corre-sponds to a medium level of pungency [12]. The calculationof pungency due to capsaicinoids could be also carried out by multiplying the capsaicinoid content (dry weight) by thecoef  󿬁 cient of the heat value for each capsaicinoid (9.3 fornordihydrocapsaicin and 16.1 for both capsaicin anddihydrocapsaicin) as described by Todd et al. [27]. Thepungency of CPOOs resulted at about 2930 and 5440 SHUfor 10% and 20% of added chili, respectively. Antioxidantactivity measured in CPOOs at both chili concentrations wassigni 󿬁 cantly higher with respect to the olive oil before DCPinfusion. 3.3 Volatile compounds Table 2 shows the volatile compounds identi 󿬁 ed in DCP,whole olive oil, and CPOOs headspaces at different chiliconcentrations and infusion times. A total of 36 volatilecompounds were identi 󿬁 ed by SPME ‐ GC/MS in chili Fig.2.  Concentrationofcapsaicin( a )anddihydrocapsaicin( b ),andtotalantioxidantactivity( c )inoliveoil 󿬂 avoredwithdriedchilipepper (CPOO) at different concentrations (10 and 20g dried chili pepper/ 100g oil) during 30 days infusion. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2013,  115  , 0000 – 0000 Chili pepper flavored olive oil quality 5   2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.ejlst.com
Related Documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x