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Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education in Federal Tertiary Educational Institutions in North – West Geo – Political Zone, Nigeria

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Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education in Federal Tertiary Educational Institutions in North – West Geo – Political Zone, Nigeria
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  Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education in Federal Tertiary EducationalInstitutions in North – West Geo – Political Zone, Nigeriay!"A#A$AT% E##&'N()(E, (A, *$(Ed, A((%+Ph(-E%)-P./EF)0123Faculty of Educationepartment of Educational )urriculum and FoundationAhmadu ello %ni4ersity, Zaria"%PE56I"&5"!Prof( (A$ainar( $rs( A(AIgunnur( E(I( $a7o8uFe9ruary, :1.;  )<APTE5 &NE INT5&%)TI&N .(. ac7ground &f The "tudy The Nigerian census of 2006 gives the estimate population of the country of 188,462,640. More than 50 of the total population of Nigerian live in !r"anareas an# literacy rate is a"out 61.$ of the population. %ts natural resourcesinclu#e Natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron, ore, coal, limestone nio"ium, lea#, &incan# ara"le lan#. 'espite all "lessings of the country, most of these mentione#resources, "oth human an# natural resources (ere a"un#ant an# yet, remain one of the poor country in the (orl# to#ay. )frica *2016+ state# that Nigeria unlie someother countries in )frica suffer the most population e-plosion. They also state#that Nigeria has many gra#uates (hich most of them en# up on the streets (ithnothing to #o after college. et(een 45 an# 60 percent of the total population lives "elo( poverty. Many people have given up on e#ucation (hich many fin# nothingto #o after gra#uation. Nigeria is a giant of )frica, accor#ing to the guar#ian*2016+ Nigeria is the 24 th  largest economy in the (orl#. The re"asing e-ercisesho(s that the country/s ' is from 42.$ trillion naira in 201$ to 80.$ trn naira*503.3"n+ a ump of 83. )lthough, ale *2016+, a mem"er of National ureauof tatistics e-plains that 7(hile it *'+ #istricts ho( rich a nation is, that is notnecessarily the same as sho(ing ho( rich the in#ivi#uals in the nation are,similarly gro(th in ' is not synonymous (ith o" creation. Nigeria has literacy rate of a"out 61.$. ano"a an# N#iomu, *2011+ in a surveyresearche# sho(s that Nigerian tertiary institutions turn out over 20,000 gra#uatesannually. hile no commensurate is "eing ma#e to get them employe# as evi#entin present a#ministration promising creation of ust 10,000 o"s in 2010.   National ureau of tatistics *2011+ also supporte# this claim, (hen compare# 12million unemployment "et(een 2010 an# 14 million in 20119 an increase of 16.:(ithin a year. ;#ucation in Nigeria is the share# responsi"ility of the <e#eral, tatean# =ocal overnments. )ccor#ing to orl# ;#ucation ervices *2016+, Nigerian<e#eral Ministry of ;#ucation plays a #ominant role in regulating the e#ucationsector, engaging in policy formation an# ensuring >uality control. ?o(ever the<e#eral overnment is more #irectly involve# (ith tertiary e#ucation than it is(ith other level of school e#ucation. The tertiary level consist of a !niversitysector an# a non @ !niversity sector. The latter is compose# of olytechnics,monotechnics an# Aolleges of ;#ucation. There are currently 128 <e#eral, tatean# rivate !niversities, :8 olytechnics, an# 281 Aolleges of ;#ucation in Nigeria. %t is (orthy to un#erstan# that e#ucation is not meant purposely for (hitecolar o", #ue to this contemporary complicate# issue, the <e#eral overnment of  Nigeria emphasi&e# on #eveloping an# reorienting the curriculum content of tertiary to(ar#s vocational relevance for the pro#uction of gra#uates (ith relevantsills for selfBemployment. Tertiary institutions (ere #irecte# "y the <e#eralovernment to incorporate ;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation into their curriculum in2006.This course is to "e offere# "y every stu#ent regar#less of his or her fiel# of speciali&ation. This is as oppose# of (hat (as o"taine# "efore, (here only "usiness e#ucation, accounting, aning an# <inance an# pro"a"ly ;conomics programmes offere# the course. %nternational =a"or Crgani&ation *%=C+ *2011+, #escri"e# the o"ectives of ;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation (hen properly im"i"e# "y stu#ents an# learners asD*a+ a"ility to i#entify something happening in the environment *resources+9 an# *"+a"ility to impart something to trainees, so that that their creativity, innovativea"ilities, "eliefs an# recom"ination sills (oul# "e enhance# ofolu(e, *200:+.;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation can "e #escri"e# as a training that stimulates learnersfor "etter life, "y generating value through the creation or e-pansion of economic  activity, i#entification an# e-ploiting ne( pro#ucts to marets. )nything that can "e taught is e#ucation, since entrepreneurship (as agree# to "e taught, it has "eeni#entify as, ;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation. %f the programme is effectively an#efficiently taught, it (ill "e a means for self B employment among learners an#accelerating sustaina"le gro(th an# #evelopment. This is an evi#ent in a num"er of #evelope# nations lie Eapan an# )merica that utili&e# entrepreneurial*facilitative+ e#ucation for improving their human capital as oppose# to thetra#itional approach of teachBan#Blisten approach, (hich is prevalent in #evelopingthir# (orl# nation To(o"ola atBel, *2011+. <or the attainment of the ne(intro#uce# programme *;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation+ in Nigerian !niversities,<e#eral Aollages of ;#ucation F olytechnics, the National !niversitiesAommission *N!A+, National oar# for Technical ;#ucation *NT;+ an# National Aommission for Aolleges of ;#ucation *NAA;+ (ere man#ate# "y the<e#eral Ministry of ;#ucation *<M;+ , (here the e#ucational agencies entruste#for the management of the programme, to all Nigerian tertiary institutionsinclu#ing state an# privates. This "ecame e-pe#ient in or#er to offers a realisticapproach in solving the en#emic pro"lem of unemployment facing the nation. The program has "een ma#e as a compulsory course for all un#ergra#uate stu#ents inthe three levelB of tertiary e#ucation irrespective of stu#ent/s   areas of speciali&ation*Gahya, 2011+. ?e also asserte# thatD 7The overall o"ective of ;ntrepreneurship;#ucation in the !niversity system is to continuously foster entrepreneurshipculture amongst stu#ents an# faculty (ith a vie( of not only e#ucating them "ut toalso support gra#uates of the system to(ar#s esta"lishing an# also maintainingsustaina"le "usiness ventures. The role assigne# to the !niversities, olytechnicsan# Aolleges of ;#ucation through their respective supervisory agencies isessentially the tass of transmitting an# implementing governmentHs policy on;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation in Nigeria, The e-pecte# outcomes from the assigne#role inclu#esD  a+;sta"lishing entrepreneurship stu#y in all higher institutions, "+;sta"lishing the curriculum for the course,c+The #evelopment of teachers gui#e, instructional manual an# stu#entsHhan#"oo for sale as (ell as capacity "uil#ing for at least ten lecturers in each!niversity,#+;sta"lishment of entrepreneurship resource an# no(le#ge centers.e+AapacityB"uil#ing for at least ten teachers in all !niversities an# #evelopmentof Masters an# h' programs in some selecte# !niversities Gahya, *2011+.%t is "elieve# (ithin the policy circles that from 2006 to 2010 the first three yearsof esta"lishing entrepreneurship program in Nigeria, that at least 50,000 gra#uates(oul# have gone through ;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation (ith sufficiententrepreneurial sills. Cut of the proecte# 50,000 trainees, it is presume# that atleast 10,000 gra#uates (oul# "e selfBemploye# an# selfBreliant "y esta"lishingtheir o(n "usiness ventures. .(: "tatement of the Pro9lem  ;ntrepreneurship ;#ucation has "een vie(e# as a learning process that im"i"es inthe learnersIstu#ents traits an# competencies such as team spirit, lea#ership, pro"lem solving, negotiation sills, self #irection an# self management, unlie thetra#itional stereo type of e#ucation, (hich places less attention on sills an# practical nee#s of the (orl# of (or ofolu(e, *201:+.    Nigerian <e#eral Ministryof ;#ucation al(ays engage# in formulation of policy an# ensure >uality controlmanagement over it orl# ;#ucation ervices, *2016+. <e#eral government isresponsi"le in managing the ne(ly intro#uce# programme, it is a ne( area (hichas oppose# to (hat (as o"taina"le "efore in tertiary institutions. 'espite the factthat the programme (as announce# to "egin at once "y resi#ent Clusegun
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