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A Study on the Medical and Benefits of Unorganized Workers in Nagapattinam District “With Special Reference to Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008”

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The Social Security of unorganized workers in Nagapattinam district reference to unorganized workers social security act 2008. In addition to providing monetary benefits, human treatment given to workers plays a very important role in seeking their
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   Available online at http://www.ijasrd.org/in  International Journal of Advanced Scientific   Research & Development    Vol. 03, Spl. Iss. 01, Ver. I, Mar ’ 2016, pp. 100  –   109 How to cite this article:  Hema, S., & Rajendran, G., (2016 ). “  A Study on the Medical and Benefits of Unorganized Workers in Nagapattinam District “With Special Reference to Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008””. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research & Development (IJASRD), 03   (01/I), [Special Issue  –   Mar ’ 2016], pp. 100  –   109. e-ISSN: 2395-6089 p-ISSN: 2394-8906  A Study on the Medical and Benefits of Unorganized Workers in Nagapattinam District “With Special Reference to Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008”   S. HEMA    Ph.D., Research Scholar, Assistant Professor of Commerce, Poompuhar College, Melaiyur. Dr. G. RAJENDRAN    Associate Professor & Head of the Department of Commerce, Poompuhar College, Melaiyur.  ARTICLE INFO  Article History: Received: 22 Feb 2016;  Accepted:   23 Feb 2016; Published online:   09 Mar 2016.   Key words: Medical, Benefits, Unorganized, Social Security.  ABSTRACT The Social Security of unorganized workers in Nagapattinam district reference to unorganized workers social security act 2008. In addition to providing monetary benefits, human treatment given to workers plays a very important role in seeking their cooperation. The Government has constituted several labour welfare boards, and ESI Corporation for the sake of providing social security to the unorganized workers in the country. Further, human resource managers realized that the provision of welfare facilities contribute a lot towards the health and efficiency of the workers their medical care, mortality benefits, pension etc., as specified by law. Copyright © 2016 IJASRD. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Common Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the srcinal work is properly cited.   INTRODUCTION  India is a developing country where labour is in abundance. As per the population census of 2011, the population of the country had crossed 1.2 billion in our country. In India unemployment is a perennial problem due to the exorbitant growth of population. Of late the employment scenario of the country has been symmetrically changed. It is true that unemployment is prevailing in the country. But at the same time, there are some sectors or industries where the availability of labour is a problem during the recent past. In the Indian context, social security is a comprehensive approach designed to prevent deprivation, assure the individual of a basic minimum income for himself and his dependents and to protect the individual from any uncertainties. The state bears the primary responsibility of redeveloping appropriate systems for providing protection to its work force.  International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Global Advancement of Business (ICGAB  –   2016) | Organized by  Department of Business Administration, R.V.S. College of Arts & Science, Karaikal  –   609 609, Puducherry, India. 101 Volume 03, Special Issue 01, Version I | 09 th  March ’ 201 6 With a view to providing social security to unorganized workers, the Government of India enacted the “Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008” The act came into force on 16.5.2009. The Act provides for registration of unorganized workers to help in formulating social security schemes for particular occupations. The central rules under the act viz, “Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008” provides for constitution of National Social Security Board which shall recommend social security schemes viz, life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits, cash loan benefits, family welfare, children education benefits, housing facility, old age protection, accident insurance and any other benefits as may be determined by the Government for unorganized workers. 1.1 Need for the Study Workers play an important role in the industrial production of the country. Hence, organizations have to secure the cooperation of workers in order to increase the production and to earn higher profits. The cooperation of workers is possible only when they are fully satisfied with their employer and the working conditions on the job. In the past, industrialists and the employers believed that their only duty towards their workers was to pay them satisfactory wages and salaries. In course of time, they realized that workers require something more important. In addition to providing monetary benefits, human treatment given to workers plays a very important role in seeking their cooperation. Further, human resource managers realized that the provision of welfare facilities contribute a lot towards the health and efficiency of the workers. All the same, organizations need to provide various social security benefits such as medical care, mortality benefits, pension etc., as specified by law. Against this background, a study has been undertaken on the research topic-A Study on the Social Security of unorganized workers in Nagapattinam district with reference to unorganized workers social security act 2008. 1.2 Significance of the Study The study is of great significance for it ascertains the opinions of workers on welfare and social security measures in a big public sector undertaking like unorganized workers. The assessment of workers welfare and social security measures will be of immense help to the management of the company and also the government for the formulation of sound employee oriented policies in future. Further, the study provides scope for implementing changes in the policies relating to unorganized workers and social security measures. The study would be highly helpful for further research in related areas of study on the social security of unorganized workers in Nagapattinam district with special reference to "Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008. 1.3 Statement of the Problem In India the number of unorganized workers has been almost three times when compared to the workers in the organized sector. There are several laws like Factories  Act, 1948, Minimum Wages Act, 1938, Workmen ’s Compensation Act, 1923, The   A Study on the Medical and Benefits of Unorga nized Workers in Nagapattinam District “With Special Reference to Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008”    Volume 03, Special Issue 01, Version I | 09 th  March ’ 201 6 102 Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscella neous Provision Act, 1952, etc. “The Unorganized Workers Social Security Act” was enacted during 2008. Despite the Act is in existence which provides social security to the unorganized workers during the service and after attaining the age which do not permit them to work, the condition of the unorganized workers has not been improved significantly. Both the Central Government (Government of India) and the State Government (Government of Tamil Nadu) are taking several measures for providing social security to the unorganized workers in the country. The Government has constituted several labour welfare boards, and ESI Corporation for the sake of providing social security to the unorganized workers in the country. The study was conducted in Nagapattinam district, basically agriculture dominating deltaic region of the river Cauvery. A large portion of people of the district has been depending upon the agriculture during the cultivation period and they have to engage other modes of employment during the off-season and a considerable portion of the people are engaging in the various segments of the unorganized sector like hotel business, transportation sector, workers in shops, construction work, rice mill, pot making work, home based works, laundry, barber shop, tailoring shop, handicraft work, landless agricultural labourers and other business works. They are not adequately paid and also their working conditions are not appreciable. During the time of crippling, their welfare has not been a concern of the job providers. The unorganized workers Social Security Act, 2008 is stipulating that the employers have to adhere, the provisions of the  Act, but they do not do so. To know the reality of the w orker’s working conditions in the unorganized sector and to know the facilities provided by the employers especially after the retirement. Hence, the researcher has selected of study on the social security of unorganized workers in Nagapattinam district with special reference to "Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008, this study has been undertaken with the following objectives. 1.4 Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to inquire into the unorganized workers and social security measures provided to workers and the specific objectives are as follows. 1.   To know the profile of the unorganized workers in the study area. 2.   To study the provisions of “The Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008” relating to sample unorganized workers in the study area. 1.5 Sources of Data Collection 1.5.1 Primary Data The primary data were collected through two schedules, one for the workers and another one for the employers. The interview schedules were designed after a pretesting during the pilot study. Primary data were collected from sample 1870 respondents from Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. 1.5.2 Secondary Data The sources of secondary data were also used in the study which was obtained  International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Global Advancement of Business (ICGAB  –   2016) | Organized by  Department of Business Administration, R.V.S. College of Arts & Science, Karaikal  –   609 609, Puducherry, India. 103 Volume 03, Special Issue 01, Version I | 09 th  March ’ 201 6 from the Government reports, books, journals and magazine, newspapers and websites, and from the records of District Collectorate. 1.6 Statistical Tools Used The following statistical techniques had been applied depending on the nature of data collected from the respondents, Percentage analysis, Descriptive analysis; Independent samples T-test, One-Way ANOVA, Chi-square analysis, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis and factor analysis. The reliability and validity analysis of the data in this study was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 20.0). For analyzing the data collected during the investigation, the following statistical values were used according to the relevance of its application. 1.7 Scope of the Study The present study is an attempt to make an enquiry into the various facets of employee welfare and social security measures in unorganized workers Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu. The scope of the present study is both wide and narrow. It is wide because it covers almost all the components of welfare and social security measures. The scope of the study could also be viewed as narrow for it covers only nature of benefits; life and disability cover, maternity benefits, housing facility, child education facility, family welfare, accident insurance cover and finally problem faced by the workers in the unorganized sector. 1.8 Period of the Study The study covered only primary data is nine months from September 2014 and March 2015. This month is normal for the purpose of analysis and evaluation. 1.9 Limitations of the Study The study has the following limitations. 1.   The study encompasses selected only (Mayiladuthurai and Nagapattinam Taluks) Nagapattinam district. 2.   Certain information’s were collected from the employers and th is information were relied upon and were considered accurate. 3.   The data were collected from the employers and the information provided by the employer was considered accurate and reliable. SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW In the pre-industrial society, security against various contingencies was provided by the institutions like joint family, caste, guild, village community, religious institutions, etc. Eventually, the emergence of industrial revolution changed both the nature of insecurity as well as the remedies provided for it. The United States of  America is considered to be the birth place of modern social security measures.   A Study on the Medical and Benefits of Unorga nized Workers in Nagapattinam District “With Special Reference to Unorganized Workers Social Security Act 2008”    Volume 03, Special Issue 01, Version I | 09 th  March ’ 201 6 104 The scheme was designed to pay a monthly benefit to needy individuals over the age of 70 years who had no one to support them. Later on, similar schemes were introduced in Andhra Pradesh in 1961, Tamil Nadu in 1962, Punjab and Haryana in 1963 and subsequently in many other states. Yes, the eligibility conditions to avail of these benefits and levels of benefits differ across the States. Subsequently, with increasing need for social security along with the increasing levels of national development, the Government made various legislative provisions to afford the needy people/workers protection against uncertainties in their lives. 2.1 Problems of Unorganized Sector   2.1.1   Problems of the Workforce  90% of workforce in vast informal sector, little awareness of workplace hazards, living areas close to work areas, extended work hours, exploitation, no concept of occupational safety/services, lack of implementation of Health & Safety legislation, no concept of Trade/Labour Union. 2.1.2 Problems of Women Workers Desperately poor low wages, fraudulent contractors, disease causing environments, child labour, and >50% women Deplorable social conditions 2.1.3 Problems faced by Government Problem of definition and identification, workforce uneducated about the benefits of organized sector, scattered nature of sector, employers avoid any form of regulation, unorganized sectors contribute to almost 60% of GDP (apart from providing livelihood to population), same labour laws cannot be applied 2.1.4 Problems from the Organized Sector Unfair competition (Walmart, Reliance), loss of employment Legal “bullying”, buyer preference for the “cleaner” retail stores, financial aid not avai lable to the unorganized sector easily to compete. 2.2 Social Security Schemes for the Unorganized Sectors The unorganized nature of the workforce, dispersed nature of operational processes and lack of institutional back up reduce their bargaining power and their ability to take full benefits from the Acts and legislations enacted for their benefits, further, low skill levels of this workforce provides little scope for them to move vertically in the occupational ladder to improve their financial situation. The growth of informal, unprotected work with shrinking formal employment compels the workers to bear an increasing direct burden of financing social needs, with adverse effects on their quality of life. That burden may also undermine the capacity of enterprises to compete with global economy. The Ministry of Labour is also operating Welfare Funds for some specific categories of workers in the unorganized sector like home based workers, cine workers and certain non-coal mine workers. The funds are used to provide various kinds of welfare activities to the unorganized workers in the field of health care, housing,
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