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A Study on Customer Awareness and Consumption of Minor Millets as a Diabetic Food Product – With Reference to Madurai City

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Minor Millets are miracle grains in their nutritional content. Minor Millets have more proteins, minerals and vitamins than rice and wheat. Minor Millets has several health benefits such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumorigenic and antioxidant properties.
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   Available online at http://www.ijasrd.org/in  International Journal of Advanced Scientific   Research & Development    Vol. 04, Spl. Iss. 01, Ver. I, Feb ’ 2017, pp. 38  –   44 How to cite this article:  Chitra, J. I. D., & Sulaiman, J., (2017 ). “  A Study on Customer Awareness and Consumption of Minor Millets as a Diabetic Food Product  –   With Reference to Madurai City ”. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research & Development (IJASRD), 04   (01/I), [Special Issue  –    Feb’ 2017], pp. 38  –   44. e-ISSN: 2395-6089 p-ISSN: 2394-8906  A STUDY ON CUSTOMER AWARENESS AND CONSUMPTION OF MINOR MILLETS AS A DIABETIC FOOD PRODUCT  –  WITH REFERENCE TO MADURAI CITY D. Jerusha Irene Chitra 1   and  Dr. J. Sulaiman 2   1 Ph.D., Research Scholar [P.T.] (Category  –   B), Bharathiar University, Coimbatore  –   641 046.  2  Assistance Professor & Research Supervisor, P.G. & Research Department of Commerce, The New College (Autonomous), Chennai  –   600 014.  ARTICLE INFO  Article History: Received: 24 Jan 2017;  Accepted:   26 Jan 2017; Published online:   10 Feb 2017.   Key words: Minor Millets, Health benefits, Diabetic Customers, Nutritional value.  ABSTRACT Minor Millets are miracle grains in their nutritional content. Minor Millets have more proteins, minerals and vitamins than rice and wheat. Minor Millets has several health benefits such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumsrcenic and antioxidant properties. Minor Millets need very less water for their production and it is not dependent on the use of fertilizers and pesticides. Inspite of these amazing qualities and capacities of minor millets farming system, the are under minor millets production and consumption has been decreased over the last five decades. In this article we analyzes the awareness and consumption of Minor Millets.  Copyright © 2017 IJASRD. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Common Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the srcinal work is properly cited.   INTRODUCTION  Millets are one of the oldest foods known to humans and possibly the first cereal grain to be used for domestic purpose. In India, lack of dietary diversity is one of the key factors behind malnutrition and the prevalence of non- communicable diseases such as diabetics, small millets grown as a complement to existing crops, contribute to an answer. Millets are highly nutritious, non-glutinous and not acid forming foods. Small Millets are one of the important food groups that had been moved out of the food basket in recent firms. While cereals provide a cheaper source of dietary calories, small millets provide vital micro nutrients like vitamin B, Calcium, Iron Folic acid and Sulphur, as well as dietary fiber making them a valuable tool in the fight against nutrition. 1.1 Health Benefits and Nutritional Value of Millets Millets possess some of the health benefits includes to protect heart health and reduce the effects of migraines, protect from diabetes, improve digestive system, lower risk of cancer, detoxify the body, boost respiratory health, optimize immune system,  Current Research in Applied Business and Social Sciences (CRABS’ 17) | Organized by Dept., of Business Administration and Dept., of Management Studies, EGS Pillay Arts & Science College, Nagapattinam  –   611 002. 39 Volume 04, Special Issue 01, Version I | 10 th   February’ 2017   increase energy levels and improve muscle and nerve health. Millets are store house of nutrition, by any nutritional parameter; millets are miles ahead of rice and wheat in terms of their mineral content, com- pared to rice and wheat. Each one of the millets has more fibre than rice and wheat. Finger millet has thirty times more calcium than rice. In their Iron content, foxtail and little millet are so rich that rice is nowhere in the race. Millets Nutrient Protein (g) Fibre (g) Minerals (g) Iron (mg) Calcium (mg) Foxtail/Tenai Millet 12.3 8 3.3 2.8 31 Proso/Panivaragu Millet 12.5 2.2 1.9 0.8 14 Kodo/Varagu Millet 8.3 9 2.6 0.5 27 Little/Samai Millet 7.7 7.6 1.5 9.3 17 Barnyard/Kuthiraivali Millet 11.2 10.1 4.4 15.2 11 1.2 Review of Literature Gruere et al (2008) analyzed the role of collective action of plant species like minor millet. Due to weak demand and trading cooking knowledge, the establishment of long run market for minor millets has require sustained efforts and has likely need to target a specific, stable segment of consumers and consumer subsidies that will enhance their appeal and increase their consumer base. Michaelraj and Shanmugam(2008) studied the millets based cultivation and consumption in India. The study concluded that consumption and harvesting of millets are falling 2012 onwards. Hence they suggested that developmental effort should be made through mini kit demonstration, state level training programs, providing improved seeds, non-monetary inputs and research, start a massive education and promotional programs on millets and government must use its media campaign funds to take up millet promotion. Its fiber content also helps to prevent conticipation and may reduce the risk of developing bowl disorders including bowel colour.  Amadan et al (2013) reviewed the nutrition composition and health benefits of millets. Millets are the staple food for millions of poor people in Asia & Africa. Comparing to other cereals, millets have high carbohydrate energy con- tent and nutritious combination of millets with other source of protein would compensate the deficiency of certain amino acids. Gull et al (2014) review assessed the nutritional and health attributes of finger millet and its utilization in value added foods. The minor millet contains important amino acids and also known for several health benefits such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerosis-genic effects, antioxidant. Besides this it is also used as a nourishing food for infants when malted and is regarded as wholesome food for diabetic’s patients.   A Study on Customer Awareness and Consumption of Minor Millets as a Diabetic Food Product  –   With Reference to Madurai City    Volume 04, Special Issue 01, Version I | 10 th   February’ 2017  40 1.3 Statement of the Problem Minor Millets remains as a stable crop for many households in India. The biggest producer of Millets in the world is India. Millets were the first cultivated food and have been consumed for a very long time. In India people used to consume these grains in the ancient times, but with the change in agricultural practices and government support to rice and wheat, their consumption pattern also changed. The grains available today are refined because of changing food processing technology of modern milling process. Moreover, the consumption of millets have been completely disappeared and it is necessary to reinforce millets consumptions, as millets are rick sources of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The focus on healthy life is a growing trend for every diabetic customer in the fast placed environment. Diabetic customer awareness of these ancient grains provides much higher nutritional balance. Since the production interest for foods which have complex carbohydrates, high protein and high fiber content interest in gluten-free diet. These attributes provided to diabetic customers however they are willing or unwilling to take part in the minor millet diet in their everyday life. 1.4 Objectives of the Study 1.   To assess the awareness of diabetic customers towards minor millets. 2.   To find out the reason for usage of minor millets by diabetic customers in their everyday life. 1.5 Hypothesis 1.   H 0 :  There is no significant difference between the respondent monthly income and consumption of minor millets. 2.   H 0 :  There is no significant difference between the respondent education and awareness of minor millets. 3.   H 0 :  There is no significant difference between the respondent age and awareness of minor millets. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This Study was carried out in Madurai City. Convenience sampling method (non- probability sampling method) was used. By Descriptive research survey, the primary data were collected by questionnaire method. 150 Samples were collected from Madurai City. Statistical tools such as Frequency Analysis, Chi-square, and Rank Correlation were used to analyze the data. 2.1 Limitations 1.   This study has been restricted to Madurai City only. So it cannot be universally applicable. 2.   The study has all restrictions of non-probability sampling.  Current Research in Applied Business and Social Sciences (CRABS’ 17) | Organized by Dept., of Business Administration and Dept., of Management Studies, EGS Pillay Arts & Science College, Nagapattinam  –   611 002. 41 Volume 04, Special Issue 01, Version I | 10 th   February’ 2017   3.   Due to time restraint the sample has been limited to 150 Diabetic customers.  ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1 Percentage Analysis Table No. 1: Demographic Factor of the Respondents  Age Factors Frequency Percentage Below 30 years 9 6 31 years to 40 years 68 45.3 41 years to 50 years 66 44  Above 51 years 7 4.7 Total 150 100 Education Factors Frequency Percentage School Level 33 22.1 Collegiate Level 47 31.3 Professional Level 56 37.3 No Formal Education 14 9.3 Total 150 100 Occupation Factors Frequency Percentage Home Maker 40 26.6 Employee 98 65.4 Business 10 6.7 Others 2 1.3 Total 150 100 Monthly Income Factors Frequency Percentage Below Rs.10,000 53 35.3 Rs.10,001- Rs.20,000 70 46.7 Rs.20,001- Rs.30,000 18 12  Above Rs.30,001 9 6 Total 150 100 Source:    Primary Data     A Study on Customer Awareness and Consumption of Minor Millets as a Diabetic Food Product  –   With Reference to Madurai City    Volume 04, Special Issue 01, Version I | 10 th   February’ 2017  42 3.2 Chi-square Analysis Table No. 2: Respondents Monthly Income and Consumption of Minor Millets Monthly Income Consumption of Minor Millets Total X  2  Daily Weekly Twice Rarely Below Rs.10,000 10 28 15 53 30.33 Rs.10,001- Rs.20,000 17 44 9 70 Rs.20,001- Rs.30,000 2 16 0 18  Above Rs.30,001 7 2 0 9 Total 36 90 24 150 Source:    Primary Data  The calculated Chi-square value is 30.33. Degrees of freedom  –   6. Significance Level @ 95%, the tabled value is 12.59. Calculated value is more than the Tabled value. CV > TV i.e.,  30.33 > 12.59. Therefore, reject the null hypothesis. Hence there is a significant difference between the respondent monthly income and consumption of minor millets. Table No. 3: Respondents Education and Awareness of Minor Millets Education  Awareness of Minor Millets Total X  2   Yes No School Level 32 1 33 10.15 Collegiate Level 32 15 47 Professional Level 47 9 56 No Formal Education 11 3 14 Total  122 28 150 Source:    Primary Data  The calculated Chi-square value is 10.15. Degrees of freedom  –   3. Significance Level @ 95%, the tabled value is 7.81. Calculated value is more than the Tabled value. CV > TV i.e.,  10.15 > 7.81. Therefore, reject the null hypothesis. Hence there is a significant difference between the respondent education and awareness of minor millets. Table No. 4: Respondents Age and Awareness of Minor Millets  Age  Awareness of Minor Millets Total X  2   Yes No Below 30 years 1 8 9 27.98 31 years to 40 years 56 12 68 41 years to 50 years 49 17 66  Above 51 years 7 0 7
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