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2010-RSP_Relations between the Aegean and Apulia in the Late Bronze Age: the evidence from an archaeometric study of the pottery at Roca (Lecce)

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2010-RSP_Relations between the Aegean and Apulia in the Late Bronze Age: the evidence from an archaeometric study of the pottery at Roca (Lecce)
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  Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria Rivista di scienzepreistoriche fondata da Paolo Graziosi LX -2010-Firenze  Rivistadi Scienze Preistoriche - LX -20I 0,257-282 RIC CARDO GUGLl E LMINd l)- SARA TIZIANALEVI (2) - RICHARD JONES (3) Relations between the Aegean and Apulia in the LateBronze Age: the evidence from an archaeometricstudy of the pottery at Roca (Lecce) SUMMARY-R ELAT IONS BETWEEN THE AEGEAN AND ApULlA IN TH ELATE BRONZ E AGE: THE E VIDENCEFROM AN ARCHAEOMETRIC STUDY OF TH E POTT E RY AT RO CA (LEC C E) -Thecoastal site of Roca in Apulia is wellknown for the quantityandquality of theAegean and Aegean-typepotteryfound there.This pottery,which ha sbeen critical in understanding relations betweenthe Aegean and southernItaly in theLate BronzeAge,has been examined archaeometrically. Chemical analysis (byICP-ES) of some forty examples of decorated pottery hasclassified the material intoAegeanimportsandlocal products;anumber of sources amongthe importsareimplicated,the North Peloponnese featuring prominently.The local productswere capable of chemicaldifferentiationfromthecorrespondingproductsat Scogliodel Tonnoand Coppa Nevigata. Combined petrographicand chemical analysis was also carried out on Greyware, dolia and other wares. Among elevenselected examples of decoratedAegeanpottery,fivewere examined withthescanning electronmicroscopewith thesignificantresult that the technology of production of the decorationwasthesamefor boththeimportedand localexamples. Keywords: Roca,BronzeAge,Aegeanpottery,local pottery,culturalrelationsand trade, chemical analysis, petrographicanalysis,scanning electronmicroscopy. Some recent articles have highlightedthe importance of the Aegean and Aegeantype pottery found at Roca (totalling overfive thousand sherds) in understandingrelations between the AegeanandsouthernItaly in the Late Bronze Age(Guglielmino2005,2007, 2008, 2009; Pagliara etalii 2007,2008). Herewepresent the results of acomplementary study lookingat aselection of finds of thesamepottery but from an archaeometricviewpoint,focusing on issues of srcin and technology. Finds have beenselected among the diagnostics on the basis of macroscopic differences in the fabric. (I) Dipartimento di BeniCulturali,Universita delSalento,Via D.Birago64,73100,Lecce;tel. +390832295532;e-mail:riccardo.guglielmino@unisalento. it (2) Dipartimento di Scienzedella Terra,Universita di ModenaeReggioEmilia, L.go S. Eufemia 19 , 41 121 , PARTA In thissectionthe pottery is characterised chemically and petrographically, following thegeneralstrategy adopted by STLand RJ in their current large-scale archaeometric study of Late Bronze Age Aegeanand Aegean-influenced pottery in Italy(Vagnetti et alii forthcoming).That strategyhas involved analysis of (a)decoratedAegean pottery, some of it regarded onstylistic/typological groundsasimportedfrom the Aegean,otherexamplesperhaps being of local manufacture;(b)Aegean-influenced Modena; tel.+390592055862;e-mail:saratiziana.levi@unimore.it (3) Department of Archaeology,GregoryBuilding, University of Glasgow,GlasgowG 12 8QQ, UK ,tel.+44 (0)1413305371/5690; e-mail:r.jones@archaeology.gla.ac. uk  258 R. GUGLl ELMINO- S.T. L EV '-R.lONES potterysuch asGreyware and dolia; (c) lmpasto; (d) othermaterialssuch asdaub and (modem)clays.Theaim of thechemicalandpetrographiccharacterisation is to assessthelikelysrcins of (a) and (b).Table I liststhepotteryfromRocase lectedfor analysis:39 examples of Aegean(A),3 Grey (G), II lmpasto (I), 4 Dolia (D), 2Basins(B),3 SouthItalian Proto-Geome tric(PG),I kiln lining(V) andIClassical (C).Thesamples were analysed chemicallyby Inductively-coupled plasmaemission Tab .I - Sampledescription andsuggested srcin. War eRO No .Description and Dale 22 Deep bowllllC 23 Crater III B-C 25 CraterIIIA-B 26 Deep bowllllB 32 Fragmentwithband 33 Closed shape III C 34 Closed shape;Matt-paintedII-IIIA 35 Deep bowl III B 36 Plain burnished kantharos? II - III A 37 GobletliB 38 Mycenaeanburnt? 39 Deep bowllllC 42 Stirrup jar IlIC 47 Decorated closedshapeIlIA-B 48 Decorated closedshape III C 49 Stemmed bowllllB 55 Closed shape III A-BA 74 CupilIA 101 Crater lllA-B 151 Closed shapelllB-C 282 Car in atedmonochrome bowllllC 353 Carinatedmonochrome bowllllC 356 Minyan-type kantharos 1l - IlI A 3 60 Pl a in burnished kantharos 1l-111A 364 Coarseware stirrup jar IlIB 430 Coarsewarestirrup jar IlIB 46 1 Stirrup jar IlIB 531 Coarse ware stirrup jar III B IP Decorated fra gment 2P Decorated fragment 3P Decorated fragment 4P Decorated fragment 5P Decorated fragment 6P Decorated fragment 7P Decorated fragment 8P Decorated fragment 9P Decorated fragment I The abbreviations MBA , RBA a nd FBArefer to the It alian Bronze Age c hronologyand correspond res- spectrometry(ICP-ES),atechniquewhich LeviandJones have been usingsince 2000, determininga fullrange of major,minorand traceelements (30 elementsin total) (Jones etalii 2005, p. 539;Vagnetti etalii forthcoming, Chapter 3).Thisseries of samples included severalduplicates,as well asthesequence lP-liP which were selected fortechnologicalexamination(PartB).Samples1-16are from FBAcontexts,and lmpasto 19 is MBA .Furtherinformation on theAegeansherds selected for analysis is given in Part Suggestedsrcin Probablylocal (North) Peloponnese(North) Peloponnese(North)Peloponnese LocalLocal(North)Peloponnese (North)Peloponnese Import(North)Peloponnese? Uncertain;Peloponnese? (North)Peloponnese CentralGreece? LocalProbablylocal/regional (North) PeloponneseLocalLocalLocalLocalProbablylocal/regional LocalImportImportWestCretanWestCretan NotCretan We stCretan LocalLocalLocalLocalImport?(North)Peloponnese LocalCentralGreece? Local respectively to Middle ,R ecent and Final Bronze Age.  RELAT IO NSBETWEEN THE AEGEAN AND ApULlA IN THELATE BRON ZE AGE : ... 259 WareRO No. Description and DateSuggestedsrcin lOP Decorated fragmentPeloponnese? liP Decoratedfragment Ce ntral Greece ? 27 Grey carinatedbowl Local outlier G 28 Grey carinatedbowl Local 31 Grey Local IDolium (coarse)LocalD 10 Dolium Local 12 Dolhlln Local 13 Dolium LocalB 11 Painted basinLocal 14 BasinLocal 5 Painted Proto geo m etr ic LocalPG 15 Painted Proto geo metric Local 16 Paint ed ProtogeometricLocal 2 Jar Local 3 Small jar Local4 Jar Local 6 Bowl Local 7 Decorated cupLocal I 8 Necked jar Local 9 Bowl Local out!ier 18 JarLocal 19 JarLocal 20 NeckedjarLocal 365 Impasto (lightwith shells) Local outlier V 21 Kiln liningLocalC 17 DecoratedfragmentPeloponnese Chemical analyses Tab . 11 - The chemical compositions asdetermined byICP-ES.Al toMnare expressed aspercentageoxide,the remainder asppmelement. WareSample AI Fe Mg CaNa K Ti P Mn A2212,865, 53 2,16 14 ,841,07 2,26 0,59 0,470,08A 2315,47 73,82 9,241,392,89 0,80,23 0,09A 25 15 ,447,3147,851,12 2,720,750,20, 13 A3212 4,48 2,3718,91 1,32 2, 15 0, 53 0,390,07 A 3313,925,352, 01 13,391,17 2,340,590,38 0, 11 A34 14 ,516,85 4,66 15 ,961,16 2,850,72 0,26 0,09 A 39 17 ,777,69 3,9316,92 2,28 1,070,80,28 0, 11 A42 13 ,60 6,90 4,9810,771,312,56 0,68 0,360,104 A4710,364,07 2,7919,771,37 2,040,46 0 ,3 00,067A48 17 ,807, 01 1,943,161,14 2,790 ,8 0 0, 14 0,062A4916,23 7, 14 3,64 11 ,791,62 1,630, 75 0,190, 115 A 55 10 ,904,28 2,5615,061,241 ,8 20,480,250,068 A74 11 ,864,51 1,9812,261,27 2,110,540,32 0,097A 101 10 , 41 3,962, 40 15,871, 01 1 ,7 90,45 0,49 0,066 A151 11 ,504,38 2,32 14 ,931,15 1,870,510,31 0,075A28216, 61 6,14 3,217,331,02 3,07 0,730,210, 12 3A 3539,613,45 2,2015,60 0,961,86 0,410,170,064 A 356 15 ,56 7,993,670,85 1,232,46 0,75 0,170, 091 A360 13 ,627,25 3,731,091,662,010,67 0,Q7 0, 133 A 36418,56 7,18 1,159, 16 1,021,37 0,90 0,220,028 A 3657,832,610 ,8 3 22,120,71 1, 11 0,29 0,34 0,101 A430 15 ,436,191,93 6,801, 11 2,70 0,88 0,22 0,060 A 461 14 ,927,05 3,9510,081, 30 2, 82 0, 73 0,200, 13 6AIP 12,254,541,96 11 , 10 1,00 2,09 0,48 0,300,064 A2P 13,615,39 2,90 11 ,51 1,612,07 0,630,26 0,081  260 R. GUGLlELMINO - S.T. LEVI - R. JONES Ware Sample AI Fe MgCa Na K TiPMnA 3P 10,72 4,13 2,6717,531,181,750,48 0,64 0,084 A 4P 11 ,074,27 2,29 14 ,691,161,980 ,5 10, 44 0,070A 5P 14 ,34 6, 40 3,32 7,751,10 2,97 0,67 0,30 0, 111 A6P16,32 7,47 3,73 2,481, 15 2,77 0,810,15 0,087 A 7P 10 ,394,13 2,3012,910,991,78 0, 48 0,420,053A8P 11 ,396,23 5,218,52 1,08 2,09 0,560,35 0,094A 9P12,71 4,982,22 5,71 1, 10 2,26 0,56 0,35 0,075 AlOP 12 ,366,08 3,55 5,58 1,782,300,640,390,075A liP 14,09 7,66 5,99 6,26 0,98 2,660,650, 10 0,098G277,74 3,821 ,5 34,27 0,310,910,36 0,55 0,Q7 G28 10 ,33 3,612,08 17,941,261, 94 0,45 0,410,08 G31 12,674 ,8 13,0516,891 ,5 12,310,56 0, 11 0,Q7 D I 14 ,425,861,15 11 , 73 0,861,560,470,52 0, 11 D 1016,19 6,28 2,68 6,541,26 2,8 0,73 0,25 0,09 D 1216,43 6,612,76 4,821,162,610,73 0,65 0, 11 D 1315,2 6, 11 2 ,7 9 7,361,032,23 0,7 0,330, 09 B 11 15 ,896,422,764,521,15 2,57 0 ,7 30,6 0,1 B 14 15,98 6,36 2,77,571,192,78 0,740,40,1 PG5 11 ,84,512,3 14,121,17 2,210,510,40,08 PG 15 11 ,954,921,97 11 ,981,42 2,58 0,53 0,250,08 PG 16 11 ,814,511,7718,48 1,09 2, 14 0,52 0,41 0,Q7 I213,93 5,01 1,498, 14 1,312,15 0,46 0,66 0, 16 I3 11 ,753 ,8 7 0,99 6,210,93 2,13 0, 44 0,260,04I413,67 5,66 0,86 1,810,951,66 0,39 0,48 0,14 I615,435,431,05 2,05 0,941,6 0,59 0,420,1 I719,277,771,222,15 0,64 2 0,76 0,340,06 I816,66 6,72 1,251,7 0,84 2, 11 0,67 0,190, 11 I9 19 , 11 7,91 1,917,12 0,62 2,27 0,73 0, 46 0, 06 I 18 11 ,55 4,76 0,73 10 ,621,02 1,380, 48 0,530, 11 I 1916 7,041,041,390,841,730,610,25 0,08 I 20 13,18 5,27 0,791 ,2 1 1,381,750, 49 0,25 0,1V 2110,04 3,831,0310, 61 0,481,470, 44 0,27 0,05C1716,058,324,13 11 ,40,96 2,610,82 0 ,2 20,1 Sample Ba Co CrCu Li NiSe SrV Y 224071216216 38 9613 359 99 2123280 23 235 62 6317918263 124 20 25 333 24 226 41 5918019 214125 23 32 393 9 11 819 41 7212 451 83 2233 460 1813719 44 8913 34397 29 3443122 25534 8821318 4681362639 415 22 219 50 10418822 650162 2842 323 25 336 36 6028818 26312122 4737610108 2442701042894 17 48 515 241833161 11 219166138 22 49 340 22 216 55 60161 20 3121442155346 11 11 2 203571 10369781774 410 12 13 417 28 77 11 3 11 6619 101 33410 10 61838 68 10 34810017 151 345 11 1061935 69 11 38892 2228246617 11 9 41585916 2 11 10717 3532758 8826 3250 9 33671 17356 355 24 3813654253 2179 13317 360 3783159832 4239318 10 4 11 5 21364305 11 1823037 7415 3 10 16418 365 607 5 46 24 20 28 646536 25430328 17 1222743 11 013 299 III 20 461 356 2221242 661 73 18 2469520 1P 318 10 111 20 41 58 11 325 89 202P328 13 237 24 46 11 213 3491 03 213P 430 10 11 926 38 6810 415 5817
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